Parshas Tzav/Parah 5757 - 1997
Outline # 29
The parsha continues on the subject of the sacrifices. The beginning states: "Command Aharon and his sons..." Rashi quotes the Medrash, "The word 'Command' implies urgency." There are multiple explanations of the necessity for "urgency" here.
The Rebbe Reb Heschel of Cracow cut through all the lengthy explanations with a fundamental concept. The Talmud in Kiddushin contrasts the merit of the person who fulfills an obligation to one who simply volunteers, without being obligated. "Greater is the one who is commanded -- and fulfills -- than one who was never commanded." Tosafos provides the logic: The one who volunteers, fulfills his own will, but the person ordered to perform has an inclination to disobey. By his overcoming tremendous obstacles, and submitting to orders, he deserves greater credit.
Therefore, it is a general idea for the entire Torah: "Command" will always need special urgency, because there will certainly be a great obstacle -- the natural inclination to disobey. (Chanukas Hatorah)
At the receiving of the Torah, the Jews were asked if they desired to have the commandments. They answered affirmatively: "Everything that Hashem says we will do." The Rabbis, however, mention that G-d held the mountain over their heads and threatened them with extinction if they would not accept. The source of the Rabbis' commentary, and reconciliation with the simple verses (which indicate the opposite), is a major issue. See, for example, Medrash Tanchumah, Parshas Noach.
With the above discussion, however, the Rabbis' words become simple and necessary. Surely the Jews accepted the Torah, as the verses indicate. However, they had only volunteered. The major thrust of the Torah would be 'mitzvah' -- command. This would be for the Jews' good, of course, because it is greater to be commanded and perform, than to do so voluntarily. The greatness of being commanded, Tosafos had explained, was due to the difficulty of overcoming the tendency to rebel. Now we see the meaning of the Rabbis' words: Even though the Jews had accepted willingly, when they heard the commandments in terms of orders, and punishments for violations, they were actually being coerced with threats of extinction. (The Maharal already explained that "turning the mountain over them," was not meant literally.) There is no inconsistency with the voluntary attitude expressed in the verses, and the Rabbis' description of coercion. When you purchase with credit, you 'volunteer' to pay. Later, however, your creditors will 'force' you to pay -- in court, if necessary!
The Torah prohibits Chametz -- leavened ingredients -- from the altar. Although the sacrifices involve flour, the flour must be unleavened. At the same time, one of the sacrifices uses chametz. The Todah -- thanksgiving offering -- has forty loaves of bread, including loaves of chametz. There is no contradiction,because the loaves are not brought to the altar, but are consumed at home. Still, why is chametz an important ingredient in one sacrifice, although proscribed ordinarily?
Chametz alludes to the evil inclination; the service of Hashem should include an aspect of purification of humanity. We must, therefore, isolate evil tendencies and not allow them to mix in with the purification process.
However, as Maharal explains, the Todah is different. It is an example of the Shlamim (whole offering), which has the connotation of peace and completion. Completion does not exclude, but is all-inclusive.
As the Todah is offered in thanks, we need to express appreciation for the evil, as well. The Torah only comes because of the evil inclination. We know that the angels complained when the Torah was given: "Why should lowly mankind receive it, and not the angels?" The answer: "They have the evil inclination, and you do not." (Maharal: Drush L'shabbos Hagadol, quoted in Peirushei Maharal al Hatorah)
Man becomes greater than the angels when the Torah is fulfilled. This is, once again, the same idea -- "Greater is the one who is commanded -- and fulfills -- than one who was never commanded."
Chasom Sofer explained the 'ersta kasha' from the Four Questions of the Seder. "Why is this night different from all other nights? All other nights, we eat chametz and matza. Tonight, only matza."
Since when do we eat chametz and matza every night? Rather, the question is a brilliant difficulty. It is referring to the thanksgiving offering, the Todah. Every day, the Todah offering has, by law, chametz and matza. Although the Pesach lamb is also a thanksgiving offering, it only has the matza... This is the question: Why does the Todah have chametz and matza every day, but upon eating the Pesach Todah we only find matza? This is an excellent question, and the answer is not presented in the Hagadah!
Rabbi Yaakov Bernstein
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Last Revision: January 27, 1997