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First Perek, Third Mishna

Expanded Translation

When are the above words said? When kinim stumos designated for chovos mingle with voluntary Olos. But when kinim stumos of chova become mingled with each other, for example, one kain stuma belonging to this woman became mingled with one kain stuma of that woman, two kinim stumos belonging to this woman with two kinim stumos of that woman, three of this woman with three of that woman, half of all the birds are permitted to be brought -- one fourth as Chato'os, the other fourth as Olos -- and the other half of the birds are disqualified.

Example of the Case of the Mishna

Three kinim stumos of Rochel's become mingled with three kinim stumos of Leah's.


We do not know which birds comprised each of the original groups. The missing information is important because we may not bring more than three of Rochel's birds as Chato'os nor more than three as Olos. The same applies to Leah's birds.


Six of the twelve birds are kosher, three to be brought as Chato'os and three as Olos. The other six may not be brought at all.

If we bring four Chato'os they might all belong to the same person. The same is true if we bring four Olos. [Diagram three]

Expanded Translation

This woman has one kain (two birds), this woman had two kinim (four birds), this woman had three kinim (six birds), this woman had ten kinim (twenty birds), this woman had a hundred kinim (two hundred birds). The kinim of any one of these women became mingled with the kinim of any other woman. As many kinim as are in the smaller of the groups that are mingled are permitted to be brought, whether each group of kinim was designated for one type of obligation (e.g., childbirth) or for two types of obligations (e.g., childbirth and ziva) and whether the kinim were all from one woman or from two women, as is explained in the following mishna.

Example of the Case of the Mishna

Rochel's one kain stuma joins and becomes confused with Leah's three kinim stumos.


We do not know which of the eight birds comprised each of the original two groups.


One bird is brought as a Chatos and one as an Olah. The remaining six birds are not brought at all.


If we bring more than one Chatos, we might be bringing two of Rochel's birds as Chato'os. The same applies if we bring more than one Olah. We may not bring more than one of Rochel's two birds as Chato'os and more than one as Olos. [Diagram Four]

Text © 1997
Rabbi Menachem Moshe Oppen and Project Genesis, Inc.

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