## Second Perek, Third Mishna

### Expanded Translation

This woman has one pair of undesignated birds. This woman has two pair. This woman has three pair. This woman has four pair. This woman has five pair. This woman has six pair. This woman has seven pair. One bird flew from the group belonging to the first woman to that of the second. Then a bird (not necessarily the same bird) flew from the second group to the third woman's group. Then a bird flew from the third group to the fourth woman's group, then a bird flew from the fourth group to the fifth woman's group. Then a bird flew from the fifth group to the sixth woman's group. Then a bird flew from the sixth group to the seventh woman's group. Then one bird flew back from each group to the next smaller group. Each bird disqualifies one pair when it leaves a group to a larger group and it also disqualifies one pair when it returns from a group to a smaller group.

The first and second women have nothing that can be brought. The third woman (whose group started with three pair) has one pair that can be brought. The fourth woman has two pair. The fifth woman has three pair. The sixth woman has four pair. The seventh woman has six pair. Only one bird left the seventh group (into the sixth). Therefore, unlike most of the groups, in which two pair are disqualified, one pair is disqualified in the seventh group. The seventh woman is then left with six pair to be brought.

### Example of the Case of the Mishna

The First Porach V'chozar

Each of seven women had a different number of kinim. The first woman had one kain (two birds), the second, two kinim, and so on. First, one bird flew out of the first group to the second, then one flew from the second to the third, and so on, until the seventh. (None yet flew out of the seventh.) Then a bird flew out of group seven to group six, then one flew from group six to five, and so on to group one. (But a second bird did not fly out of group one.)

It is possible that only one bird did all the travelling in each direction. It is possible that each flight was done by a different bird. It is possible that some of the flights were done by one bird and some by other birds.

### Result

Each group has the same number of birds it started with. One bird has flown out of groups one and seven, and two birds left groups two through six. Although each group has the same number of birds as it started with, one or two now in each group might not have originated in that group. [Diagram 9]

### Din of the First Group

No korbonos may be brought.

### Reason

Either bird now in the first group might be an original member of the group. It may not be brought as a Chatos for perhaps its partner, which might now be in another group, will be brought as a Chatos. It may not be brought as an Olah because its partner might be brought as an Olah. [Diagram 14, meant to be viewed later]

### Din of the Second Group

None of the four birds is brought.

### Reason

None of the birds may be brought as a Chatos because the two birds that flew out might both be brought as Chato'os by other women. None may be brought as Olos because the two that flew out might be brought as Olos by other women. We want to assure that no more than two of the original birds of the second group will be Chato'os, nor will more than two be Olos.

### Comment

In fact, one of the two birds that flew out of the second group flew into the first group. Since none of the birds now in the first group will be offered, we need not be concerned that that bird will be a Chatos or an Olah. However, in order to avoid confusion the Rabonon said that we should treat this bird as if it flew among birds that would become korbonos. (Tosfos, Maseches Yuma Daf 65:2, dibbur hamas'chil "umishoom gzaira yomusu.") One possible understanding of this rule is that when two birds fly out of one group, and one mingles with birds that are offered and the other with birds that are not, we consider it as if both flew among birds that are offered. [Diagram 15]

### Din of the Third Group

One bird is brought as a Chatos, another as an Olah. The remaining four birds are not brought.

### Reason

We cannot bring two Chato'os because other women might bring the two birds that flew out as Chato'os. No more than three Chato'os may be brought from the original group of six birds. We cannot bring two Olos because the two birds that flew out might become Olos. No more than three Olos may be brought from the original group.

### Comment

In fact, the bird that flew to group two will not be brought because none of the second group is brought. The Rabonon treat this case as if both birds flew where there was a risk that they would be brought, as we treated the second group. [Diagram 16]

### Din of the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth groups

We bring four birds of the eight in the fourth group, six of the ten in the fifth group, and eight of the twelve in the sixth group. Half of those brought are Chato'os, and half are Olos.

### Reason

The din follows the reasoning for the second and third groups. Namely, two birds left each group. We reduce by two the number of Chato'os to be brought from each group, in case both birds that flew out are brought as Chato'os. We also reduce by two the number of Olos from each group, in case both birds that left are brought as Olos. That is, four fewer birds are brought than the original number. This reduces the number of korbonos from eight to four, from ten to six, and from twelve to eight in the respective groups. [Diagrams 10, 11, and 12]

### Din of the Seventh Group

We bring twelve of the fourteen birds, six as Chato'os and six as Olos.

### Reason

Only one bird left this group. Since the bird that flew out might be brought as a Chatos, we reduce the number of Chato'os brought from this group by one. Since it might be brought as an Olah, we bring one Olah less. That is, six birds are Chato'os, six are Olos, and two are not brought at all. [Diagram 13]

### Comment

The dinim of the first through seventh groups are applications of the principle stated following Mishna Bais, that each bird flying out of a group reduces by two the number of birds that can be brought from that group.

### Expanded Translation

Then, starting with the third group, a bird flew out of each group into the next larger group, and one bird flew back from group seven through four into the next smaller group. Each bird disqualifies one pair when it leaves a group for a larger group, and disqualifies a pair when it returns from a group to a smaller group. The third and fourth women have nothing that can be brought. The fifth woman, who after the first porach v'chozar had three pair, now has one pair. The sixth woman has two. The seventh has five.

### Example of Case of the Mishna

The Second Porach V'chozar

At the end of the first porach v'chozar all the birds in the first and second groups are disqualified from being korbonos. Therefore, birds will now move only among groups three through seven, as the end of the Mishna clarifies. As this part begins, the third woman can bring two birds (one kain of her original three), the fourth woman can bring four birds (two kinim of four), the fifth can bring six (three kinim of five), the sixth can bring eight (four kinim of six), the seventh can bring twelve (six kinim of seven).

Now one additional bird flew from the third group to the fourth group,one flew from the fourth group to the fifth, and so on until the seventh group. (No additional bird flew yet out of the seventh.) Then a bird flew out of group seven to group six, then one flew from group six to five, and so on until group three. (No additional bird flew from the third group to the second.)

### Result

Each woman has the same number of birds she started with. One bird has flown out of group three, in addition to the two that left earlier, for a total loss of three. Groups four through six each lost two birds in addition to the two lost earlier, for a total of four lost. Group seven lost one earlier and one now for a total loss of two. (As many birds joined each group as the group lost.) [Diagram 17]

### Din of the Third Group

No korbonos are brought.

### Reason

The principle of Mishna Bais continues to be applied, reducing by two the number of birds that can be brought for each bird that left the group. The third group has lost three of its six birds. They might all be brought as Chato'os by other women, leaving no Chato'os to be brought by the owner of this group. The three might all be brought as Olos, leaving no Olos to be brought. [Diagram 18]

### Din of the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth groups

No korbonos are brought from group four, one Chatos and one Olah are brought from group five, and two Chato'os and two Olos are brought from group six.

### Reason

Each group has lost four of its birds. This reduces the number of korbonos brought from each group by eight, two for each bird that flew out, by the principle stated following Mishna Bais. That is, if the four birds that flew out of each group are all brought as Chato'os, then four fewer Chato'os should be brought. If the four that left are brought as Olos, four fewer Olos should be brought. This disqualifies all eight birds in group four, eight of the ten birds in group five, and eight of the twelve in group six.

### Comment

In fact, some of the birds flew to groups that are now completely disqualified. The Rabonon treat these cases as if all the birds might be brought as part of other groups, as in the comment on the din of the second group. [Diagrams 10, 20, and 21]

### Din of the Seventh Group

Ten of the original fourteen are brought, five as Chato'os and five as Olos.

### Reason

Group seven has lost a total of two birds. (Groups four through six each lost two birds to the next larger group and two to the next smaller group. But group seven only lost two birds to the next smaller group, group six. None flew into a larger group as there is no larger group.) Since both birds might be brought as Chato'os, we bring two fewer Chato'os, and since they might both be Olos, we bring two fewer Olos. This disqualifies four of the fourteen original birds, another application of the principle stated following Mishna Bais. [Diagram 22]

### Expanded Translation

A bird flew out of group five to group six and from group six to group seven, and one bird flew back from seven to six and six to five. It disqualifies one pair when it leaves each group for a larger group, and it disqualifies one pair when it returns. The fifth and sixth women have nothing to be brought. The seventh woman has four pair. And some say that the seventh woman does not lose anything as a result of the third porach v'chozar and continues to be able to bring five pair.

### Example of the Case of the Mishna

The Third Porach V'chozar

At the end of the second porach v'chozar all the birds in the first through fourth groups are disqualified from being korbonos. Therefore birds will now move only among groups five through seven. As this part begins, the fifth woman can bring two birds (one kain of the original five), the sixth woman can bring four birds (two kinim of the original six), and the seventh woman can bring ten birds (five kinim of the original seven).

Now one bird flew from group five to the sixth group and one flew from six to seven. (None flew out of the seventh.) Then a bird flew out of group seven to group six, and one flew out of group six to group five. (None flew out of five.)

### Result

Each woman has the same number of birds that she started with. However, as many as six birds that are now in a group might not be originally from that group. [Diagram 23]

### Din of the Fifth Group

None of the birds is brought.

### Reason

A total of five birds have flown out. They might all be brought as Chato'os, leaving no more Chato'os to bring. If they were all brought as Olos no more Olos can be brought from this group. [Diagram 24]

### Din of the Sixth Group

None of the birds is brought.

### Reason

A total of six birds have flown out. They might all be brought as Chato'os, leaving no more Chato'os to be brought. They might all be brought as Olos, leaving no more Olos to be brought.

### Comment

As in previous cases, some of the birds that left groups five and six flew to groups from which no korbonos are being brought. The Rabonon treat these birds as if they might have been brought, as noted earlier. [Diagram 25]

### Din of the Seventh Group (First opinion)

Four birds are brought as Chato'os and four as Olos.

### Reason

A total of three birds have flown out of this group. In truth, none of those birds will be brought as korbonos, because all the birds in all the other groups have by now been disqualified. However, the Rabonon have legislated (as discussed above with respect to the din of the second group) that we treat the remaining birds in the group as if those that flew out will be brought as korbonos. If all three were brought as Chato'os, group seven would have four more Chato'os to bring. If the three were brought as Olos, group seven would have four more Olos to bring. [Diagram 26]

### Din of the Seventh Group (Second opinion)

Five birds are brought as Chato'os and five are brought as Olos (just as was the din before this third porach v'chozar).

### Reason

Of the total of three birds that left group seven, two flew into group six when it was possible for the owner of group six to bring them as korbonos. Therefore, the number of kinim brought from group seven was reduced by two. That is, only five Chato'os and five Olos could still be brought.

However, we are not concerned that the third bird that flies from group seven will be brought as a Chatos or an Olah, since, by now, all the birds in group six are disqualified (as explained above). Therefore, the third bird to leave group seven does not disqualify a third pair from group seven.

According to this opinion, the Rabonon did not treat the third bird as if it might be brought by another woman. It appears that the Rabonon were concerned only about a case where more than one bird left a group and one of them might truly be brought. But in the case of group seven in the third porach v'chozar, only one bird leaves group seven, and there is no chance it will be brought. [Diagram 27]

### Expanded Translation

If a bird flew from a group that must be left to die (because the entire group is disqualified), all those in the group into which the bird flew must be left to die.

### Example of the Case of the Mishna

After the first porach v'chozar all the birds in groups one and two are disqualified. Then a bird moved from group one to group two to group three and so on as in the first porach v'chozar.

### Result

The disqualified bird that left group two might have remained in group three (and the bird that moved from group three to group four might be a different bird) or it might have continued moving from group to group and ended in groups four, five, six, or seven.

### Din

None of the birds of any group may be brought.

### Reason

Each bird in each group might be the disqualified bird that originated in group one or two.

### Comment

The Mishna here is clarifying why, in the cases of the second and third porach v'chozar, no birds flew from groups one through four after those groups were completely disqualified.

Rabbi Menachem Moshe Oppen and Project Genesis, Inc.

Feedback is appreciated! It can be sent to: oppen@torah.org.

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