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Kinim

Third Perek, Fifth Mishna

Expanded Translation

We learned in the first Perek that if designated Chato'os mingle with undesignated birds of chova only the number of birds in the undesignated group that could have been brought as Chato'os is kosher.

Comment

This rule usually has the effect that in cases of Chatos shenisarvo b'chova fewer than half the birds will be brought as korbonos. For example if one Chatos mingles with two kinim stumos, two of the five birds are brought.

The Mishna tells us in the next case that sometimes a Chatos might become mixed with the birds of chova, and a full half of the birds will be kosher. Thus, in a case of "Chatos shenisarvo b'chova," if :

"Chova shnayim bachatos, mechtza kosher umechtza possul"


Expanded Translation

A designated Chatos becomes mingled with a group of three birds of chova, that is, three are stumos. Of these three birds of chova, the number to be brought as Chato'os is double the number to be brought as Olos. Half the four birds are kosher to be brought as Chato'os and the other half of the birds are possul.

(This translation, in which three birds remain from two kinim, follows the example given by the Rav. However, it appears that the Mishna also refers to cases of multiples of two kinim, where the proportions of original Chato'os and of Olos that fly in is the same as in the Rav's case.)

Case of the Mishna

A woman has four birds that are stumos. The Kohain brings one as an Olah. This leaves her with one more bird to be brought as an Olah and two birds to be brought as Chato'os. That is, the number of Chato'os is double the number of Olos. Then, a designated Chatos flew in.

Result

The woman is left with four birds of which three are to be Chato'os (the visitor and two of the stumos) and one an Olah.

Din

Only two of the four birds may be brought as Chato'os and none as Olos.

Reason

We cannot bring any bird as an Olah for it might be the designated Chatos that joined the group. The two Chato'os that are brought will be either two of the three stumos or one of the three stumos plus the visiting bird. We cannot bring a third Chatos because the three Chato'os might be the three remaining original stumos. Only two of the stumos may be Chato'os. [Diagram 37]


Expanded Translation

Another case of "Chatos shenisarvo b'chova," a Chatos that became mingled with a group of stumos: Of these birds of chova the number to be brought as Olos is double the number to be brought as Chato'os. The number of birds that are kosher to be brought is the same as the number of Chato'os that remain among the birds of chova.

Case of the Mishna

A woman has four birds. The Kohain brings one of them as a Chatos. This leaves her with three birds, of which two are to be made Olos and one a Chatos. That is, the number of Olos is double the number of Chato'os. A designated Chatos then flew into her group of three.

Result

There are four birds. Two were to be brought as Olos and two as Chato'os (the visitor and one of the stumos).

Din

The woman brings one Chatos and no Olos.

Reason

None can be brought as Olos since we might bring the designated Chatos that flew in. We can bring one Chatos, which will be the Chatos that flew in or one of the stumos. We may not bring another bird as a Chatos, for perhaps by now both Chato'os of the stumos have been brought, requiring that the remaining two stumos be Olos. [Diagram 38]

Comment

The explanation of this Mishna by the Rav is clear. However, the phrases in the Mishna, "chova shnayim bachatos" and "chatos shnayim b'chova," remain difficult to translate.

The Mishna is maintaining continuity with the case with which it began, chatos shenisarvo b'chova, by continuing to employ the terminology of chatos and chova. The following appears to be the translation of the two phrases according to the Rav.

  1. Chova: Within a group of chova (i.e., stumos)

    shnayim bachatos: There are twice as many birds among the Chato'os that are to be brought (as there are other birds).

  2. V'chatos: And the bird to be brought as a Chatos

    shnayim b'chova: (is outnumbered by) twice as many (of other birds) in the group of (three) chovos.

In each case the "other" birds are birds that are to be brought as Olos. [Diagrams 37 and 38]


Expanded Translation

And similarly, if designated Olos mingle with undesignated birds of chova, only the number of birds in the undesignated group that could have been brought as Olos is kosher.

Designated Olos become mingled with a group of birds of chova that are stumos. Of these birds of chova the number to be brought as Olos is double the number to be brought as Chato'os. Half the birds are kosher to be brought as Olos and the other half are possul.

Olos became mingled with a group of chova that are stumos. Of these birds of chova the number to be brought as Chato'os is double the number to be brought as Olos. The number of birds that are kosher to be brought is the same as the number of Olos that remain among the birds of chova.

Cases of the Mishna

The din and reasons in this case are analogous to those of the previous case of Chatos. Using the Rav's example of one bird flying into a group of 3, the Mishna is saying:

A designated Olah becomes mingled with a group of three birds of chova that are stumos. Of these three birds of chova the number to be brought as Olos is double the number to be brought as Chato'os. Half of the four birds are kosher to be brought as Olos and the other half of the birds are possul.

An Olah becomes mingled with a group of three birds that are stumos. Of these three birds of chova the number to be brought as Chato'os is double the number to be brought as Olos. The number of birds that are kosher to be brought is the same as the number of Olos that remain among the birds of chova, namely one Olah.


Text © 1997 Rabbi Menachem Moshe Oppen and Project Genesis, Inc.

Feedback is appreciated! It can be sent to: oppen@torah.org.


 


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