Part I: Orach Chayim
Chapter 14 - BLESSINGS ON SPECIFIC FOODS
The blessing on bread is "...Who brings bread out of the earth" (167:2),
and after eating it, grace must be said (see Ch.14). The bread must
be made of the five species of grain: wheat, barley, oats, rye, and spelt;
see 168:4. To be regarded as bread, it must be baked in an oven (see
168:13,15-17) or in a pot without liquid (see 168:8,13-14), even if it was
cooked first (see 168:14); it must resemble bread (see 168:10,13) and must
not be crisp (see 168:7); and it must not have sweets, fruits, or spices as
major ingredients or fillings (see 168:7). Bread remains bread even if it
is broken into small pieces (168:9-10); and a food that contain pieces of
bread that are the size of a KE-ZAYIS, or that are recognizable as bread
and have not been cooked, is also regarded as bread (see 168:10-12). When
food made of grain is not regarded as bread, the blessing on it is "...Who
creates kinds of nourishment", and after eating it, the blessing "...on
the sustenance..." is recited (see below); but in most cases, someone who
intends to eat a quantity of it that most people would regard as a meal
should recite the blessing on bread and should say grace afterward (see
168:6,8,15). The blessing on bread should preferably be recited on a
large, unbroken piece made from clean wheat or barley; see 168:1-5.
The blessing on wine (or grape or raisin juice or lees; see 202:11 and
204:3,5-6) is "...Who creates the fruit of the vine" (202:1). On fruits
that grow on trees, including grapes, and on olive oil (see 202:4), the
blessing is "...Who creates the fruit of the tree" (202:1). On other
edible parts of a tree, or on unripe fruit, the blessing is "...Who
creates the fruit of the ground"; see 202:2,3,6,18 and 203:6. The blessing
"...by Whose word everything exists" is recited on the juices of fruits
other than grapes and olives (see 202:8,15), or on foods or drinks made
from fruit that is no longer recognizable (see 202:7,10-11), or made
from unripe fruit that is normally not eaten unripe (202:13-14;204:1),
or on fruits that never ripen (see 202:9;204:1), or on raw fruits that
are normally eaten cooked (202:12), or on small fruits that grow on trees
that are not regarded as fruit-bearing (see 203:4-5).
The blessing on fruit that does not grow on trees, but rather on bushes
or plants that do not have permanent trunks, is "...Who creates the fruit
of the ground" (202:17;203:1-3,8), and the same blessing is recited on
vegetables and legumes (205:1) or on grain or rice eaten whole or ground
(see 208:4-5,7). The blessing "...by Whose word everything exists" is
recited on raw vegetables that are normally eaten cooked; on cooked
vegetables that are better when eaten raw (205:1,5;204:1); on unripe
vegetables (204:1); on cooked vegetables that are no longer recognizable
(208:8); and on vegetable juices (205:3); but on the water in which
vegetables are cooked, the blessing is the same as on the vegetables (205:2).
The blessing on foods that do not grow from the ground is "...by Whose word
everything exists" (204:1). This includes animals, birds, fish, locusts,
eggs, milk, and cheese (204:1); honey (204:10); mushrooms (204:1); salt and
spices (204:1); and water (204:1,7). This blessing is also recited on food
whose origin is not recognizable (204:1); on parts of plants that are not
usually eaten (204:1;208:4); on drinks made from grain (204:1;208:6); and
on foods that are eaten only as supplements to other foods (see 212:1).
If a blessing that is more general than necessary was recited by mistake,
it is acceptable; and in cases of doubt, the more general blessing should
be recited (202:18;204:13;206:1-2). On cases in which the blessing on (or
after) a food is applicable to other foods see 208:13-18; on errors in
blessings see 209:1-2. On precedence in blessings, as regards preference
vs. the importance of the food or the blessing, see 211:1-6 and 210:1-2.
The blessing after eating most types of food is "...Who creates many
souls..." (207:1). After eating grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives, or
dates, the blessing is "...on the tree..."; see 208:1,10. After eating
foods that contain the five types of grain, the blessing is "...on the
sustenance...", provided they are the primary ingredient; see 208:2-4,6,9.
The blessing on cooked or baked rice is "...Who creates kinds of nourishment",
but "...on the sustenance..." is not recited after it (208:7). After
drinking wine, the blessing is "...on the vine..." (208:11). For
combinations of these things, these blessings are combined (208:12).
The Sabbath, New Moon, and holidays are also mentioned in them when
Shulchan Aruch, Copyright (c) 2000 Project
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