Chapter 21 - KIDDUSH, HAVDALAH, AND THE SABBATH MEALS
When coming home from the synagogue on Friday night, a person should eat
immediately (271:1). Nothing should be eaten or drunk before reciting
KIDDUSH (271:4,7); both men and women are required to recite it (271:2).
On what a person should do if he is in the middle of a meal when the
Sabbath begins see 271:4-6. KIDDUSH on Friday evening is more important
than the Sabbath morning KIDDUSH and even than the Sabbath meals (271:3);
on what to do if it was omitted or if there is not enough wine see 271:8,11.
Bread should be on the table during KIDDUSH, covered above and below (271:9).
KIDDUSH should be recited on a full, untasted cup of wine; the requirements
for this cup are the same as those for the cup on which grace is said
(271:10; see Ch.14). It may also be recited on bread; see 271:12 and 272:9.
On the types of wine that may be used see 272:1-8; on using other beverages
see 272:9. When wine is used for KIDDUSH, other wine drunk during that meal
does not require a blessing (272:10). KIDDUSH consists of "The heavens...";
the blessing on wine (or bread); and the blessing on the Sabbath (see 271:10).
A volume of wine equal to least 3/4 of an egg should then be drunk by one
of those present; the person who recited KIDDUSH should taste the wine
first (see 271:13-14,16-17). On what to do if there is an interruption
before the wine is tasted see 271:15; on reciting KIDDUSH for others see
273:4,6; on reciting it outside the house see 273:1,7. The meal is begun
after KIDDUSH; on when the hands should be washed see 271:12. The meal
should be eaten in the place where KIDDUSH is recited; see 273:1-3,5-6.
Bread must be eaten at the Sabbath meal (274:4); two whole loaves of bread
should be used by at least one of those present (see 274:1-3). Scholars
should have marital relations with their wives on Friday night; see 280:1-2.
A person should eat on the Sabbath at times that are most enjoyable to him;
see 288:7. He should not fast on the Sabbath even for half a day (288:1,8);
on cases when fasting is permitted, and on what he should do if he must fast,
see 288:2-6. The morning meal is preceded by the blessing on wine (or some
other beverage, if necessary), and two loaves of bread should be used (289:
1-2). The wine should be drunk in the place where the meal will be eaten,
and nothing should be eaten or drunk before it, except for water drunk
before the morning prayers (289:1; see 89:3). Many blessings should be
recited on foods and fragrances to ensure that 100 blessings (see Ch.5) are
recited on the Sabbath; see 284:3 and 290:1. After the morning meal, time
should be set aside to study Torah, especially by those who do not spend
much time studying it during the week (290:2), but a person who is
accustomed totaking an afternoon nap may do so (290:1). It is important
for everyone to eat a third meal during the afternoon, preferably after
reciting the afternoon prayer; see 291:1-3,6. This meal need not be
preceded by wine, but two loaves of bread should be used if possible;
HAVDALAH is recited at home for those who did not hear it in the synagogue
(see 296:7), using a full cup of wine; it is customary to begin by reciting
verses about salvation and to spill out some of the wine (see 296:1).
HAVDALAH consists of blessings on wine, fragrance, and fire, followed by
the blessing "...Who distinguishes..." (296:1). On using beverages other
than wine or using bread instead of wine see 296:2; on what to do if no
wine is available see 296:3-5 and 298:1. On whether to recite HAVDALAH
sitting or standing see 296:6; on a woman reciting it see 296:8. On the
fragrances that may be used see 297:1-5. The blessing on fire is "...Who
creates the lights of the fire" (298:1); on one person reciting it on
behalf of others see 298:14. It may be recited only on behalf of someone
who can see the flame and is close enough to make use of its light (298:4,
13,15); it is customary to examine the hands (298:3). On the types of
fire on which it should be recited after the Sabbath and after YOM KIPPUR
see 298:5-8 and 624:4-5; in both cases it must be a fire that was lit for
illumination purposes (see 298:9-12), and must be a torch or a candle with
at least two wicks (298:2). A person must not eat or drink anything but
water after dark until he has heard or recited HAVDALAH (299:1); but he
is permitted to recite HAVDALAH even if he has eaten (299:5-6), and if he
is in the middle of eating when it gets dark, he may continue (see 299:1-4,
7-8). On what to do if HAVDALAH was omitted see 299:6; the blessings on
fragrance and fire are recited only on Saturday night. A person may do
work after reciting "...Who distinguishes..." (see 299:10). The table
should be set on Saturday night (300:1), but bread must be covered while
HAVDALAH is recited (299:9).
Shulchan Aruch, Copyright (c) 2000 Project