The following is a discussion of Halachic topics related to the Parsha of the week.
For final rulings, consult your Rav.
...and his eleven children (32:23)
Yaakov was punished for concealing Dinah from his brother since she might have had a good influence on him. (Rashi)
KIRUV RECHOKIM: IS EVERYTHING PERMITTED?
Of paramount important to Orthodox Jewry today is kiruv rechokim, bringing our fellow Jews back to religious observance.
Thank G-d, the concerted efforts of many devoted individuals and
organizations have borne fruit, and thousands of Jews the world
over have gone back to their roots and become Torah observant.
We must bear in mind, however, that although kiruv rechokim is
supremely important, it does not supersede Halachah. "The ends
justify the means" is a philosophy utterly rejected by the
Torah, and compromising halachic standards for the sake of being
mekarev is forbidden.
Recently, a certain kiruv network recruited actors and
actresses and honored them at an organizational event. In view
of the immoral and decadent lifestyle pursued and personified by
these people, honoring them may be a desecration of Hashem's
honor. When we give recognition to such people, we mock the
sanctity and holiness which Hashem requires of us, His "kingdom
of priests and holy nation" (1).
Another sensitive issue that presents itself to just about
anyone involved in kiruv is the problem of men and women shaking
hands. Physical contact of this sort is a serious
transgression (2) and should be studiously avoided (3). Although
kiruv professionals prepare themselves to deal with this
problem, those of us who are not adept at handling such
potentially embarrassing situations may not put ourselves in a
position where we are liable to violate the halachah.
Since kiruv veterans agree that a most effective method of
kiruv is the Shabbos invitation, let us review some of the
potential trouble-spots so that we do not transgress the
halachah while acting upon our good intentions.
If the guest does not live within walking distance of our home,
he should be invited for the entire Shabbos so that he does not
drive home on our account. The guest should be told that
according to Jewish law it is prohibited for him to drive home
on Shabbos. Experienced kiruv workers maintain that when
properly explained, the guest will often accede to the request.
In the event that the guest will come for Shabbos only if he can
drive home, there are authorities who permit inviting him
anyway, provided that there is a reasonable chance that the
invitation will lead to kiruv (4). The guest should be informed
that sleeping quarters have been arranged for him and he may
change his mind at anytime and decide to sleep over. Since not
all authorities agree with this leniency (5) and not all cases
are identical, the specific case should be presented to a rav
for a final decision.
When possible, a guest at our table should be asked to wash his
hands before eating bread (6) and to recite the proper blessing
before and after food is eaten (7). If the guest cannot read the
Hebrew text, he may recite the blessing in any language that he
understands (8). Alternatively, the host may recite the blessings
aloud while the guest listens and recites amen (9). If none of
these suggestions are practical, it is permitted to serve him
food, even though he will not wash his hands or a blessing--either before or after the meal--will not be recited (10).
A non-observant Jew may be counted towards the minimum number of
people required for zimun. Preferably, however, he should not be
the one to lead the zimun (11).
While teaching a non-observant Jew how to recite a blessing, it
is permitted for the host to recite Hashem's name (12).
A female guest, whether single or married, must be dressed at
least according to the minimum standards of tzenius (13). A woman
who is scantily clad, should not be invited into our homes under
If the female guest is not is not dressed with the minimum
requirements of tzenius, kiddush, blessings, Divrei Torah or
zemiros may not be recited while facing her. If one cannot avoid
facing her, one may close his eyes or face downward throughout
the recitation of these devorim sh'bekedushah (14).
A married woman's hair should be covered while sitting at our
table. If it is not, there are poskim who are lenient and allow
devorim sh'bekedushah to be recited in her presence (15). One may
rely on these poskim when no other alternative is practical (16).
A female guest should be asked not to sing zemiros along with
the family. If this will result in alienating a potential
ba'alas teshuvah, there are some poskim who allow her to sing
along with the rest of the family (17).
The wine or grape juice should not be touched or poured by the
guest (18). If the wine or grape juice is mevushal (cooked),
there are several authorities (19) who permit non-observant Jews
to touch it while others (20) do not (21).
Before learning Torah with a potential ba'al teshuvah, it is
proper--when possible--to have him recite Birchos ha-Torah (22).
In a previous column we quoted the opinion of several poskim who
prohibit proposing a shiduch between non-observant Jews who will
not keep the laws of family purity. It is possible, however,
that if the shiduch is made for the purposes of potential kiruv
or in order to avoid the tragic alternative of intermarriage,
then the shiduch may be proposed. A rav should be consulted.
1 Harav E. Svei (oral address, partly quoted in Yated Ne'eman,
Dec. 6 1997).
3 Harav Y.Y. Kanievsky quotes the Chazon Ish as maintaining that
shaking hands falls into the category of yehareg ve'al ya'avor
(see Teharas Am Yisrael, pg. 44).
4 Teshuvos v'Hanhagos 1:358. Several arguments lend support to
The guest is desecrating the Shabbos regardless of my invitation;
Actually, we are minimizing his chillul Shabbos for the time period he will spend at our home;
He will be eating kosher food;
Several poskim hold that "aiding a sinner" does not apply to one who deliberately sins
(see Igros Moshe Y.D. 1:72 and E.H. 4:87-1 quoting the Dagul M'ervavah);
The purpose of the invitation is for kiruv and not to aid a sinner in committing a sin.
5 See Igros Moshe O.C. 1:98-99; 4:71; who prohibits organizing a
minyan for children on Shabbos when they will surely come by
car. [There are several differences, however, between the
situations described in these responsa and the situation with
which we are dealing.] See also a stringent ruling by Harav S.
Wosner (quoted in Avosos Ahavah, pg. 119).
6 Rama O.C. 163:2.
7 O.C. 169:2.
8 O.C. 185:1.
9 Mishnah Berurah 213:9. B'dieved, even if the guest failed to
recite amen, his blessing is valid.
10 Harav S. Z. Auerbach (oral ruling, quoted in Vezos
ha-Berachah, pg. 154). [See also Minchas Shelomo 35 where Harav
Auerbach maintains that when denying a guest food will lead him
to become antagonistic toward Torah and religious Jews, it is
permitted to feed him. See also similar ruling quoted in the
name of Chazon Ish in Pe'er ha-Dor 3:195]; Harav C.P. Scheinberg
(quoted in Avosos Ahava, pg. 118.); See also Igros Moshe O.C.
5:13-9 who finds much room for leniency on this matter.
11 Harav S.Z. Auerbach and Harav C.P. Scheinberg (quoted in
Vezos ha-Berachah, pg. 132) based on Mishnah Berurah 199:2 and
Beiur Halachah. See also Teshuvos Pnei Mavin 40.
12 Igros Moshe O.C. 2:56.
13 Minimum requirements: Neckline must be high enough to cover
the bone at the base of the neck (collarbone); sleeves must
extend past the elbow; dress must cover the knees.