By Rabbi Doniel Neustadt
A discussion of Halachic topics related to the Parsha of the
week. For final rulings, consult your Rav.
CUTTING A DECORATED CAKE ON SHABBOS
The Biblical prohibition of erasing letters on Shabbos applied to erasing
for the purpose of preparing the surface for future writing. This was the
nature of the "erasing" in the Mishkan. The Rabbis, however extended the
prohibition to include any and all erasing, regardless of the purpose of the
erasure and even when the erasure served no purpose at all, as in tearing
the lettering of a package(1).
QUESTION: On Shabbos, is it permissible to cut letters or pictures which
decorate a cake?
DISCUSSION: Rama(2) quotes a view that prohibits cutting or breaking off a
piece of cake on which letters - or pictures(3)- appear. The fact that the
person has no intention of erasing the letters and is interested only in
eating the cake makes no difference; the letters are erased in the process,
so cutting or breaking off a piece of decorated cake is forbidden based on
the rule of inevitable consequences (pesik reisheh). It makes no difference,
according to this view, if the erasure is done prior to eating by cutting
the cake with a knife, or even if the letters are erased by biting into and
chewing the cake(4). Either action is considered to be erasing and is
Other poskim(5) differ with the Rama. They maintain that the Rabbis did not
forbid cutting or breaking off a piece of cake because: 1) the erasing in
this case is not done for the sake of future writing; 2) the erasing is
destructive; 3) the erasing is done indirectly (k'lachar yad). According to
this view, then, it would be permitted to cut a decorated cake, even before
eating it, although the frosted letters would definitely be erased.
Latter-day poskim debate what the practical halachah should be. Some tend
to be lenient(6), while others are stringent(7). The Mishnah Berurah rules
that one may rely on the lenient view only when the erasing comes as a
result of biting and chewing. Cutting the cake before eating it is
prohibited. However, the following exceptions are discussed by the poskim:
1. It is permitted to cut between letters even if a word is destroyed(8). It
is also permitted to remove a letter on the icing along with a thin sliver
of cake on which it rests(9).
2. It is permitted to cut letters or figures that are baked into the body of
the cake itself(10). It is also permitted to cut a cake or cookie that has a
meaningful shape(11), such as a gingerbread man.
3. It is permitted to cut letters which are made from fruit juice or from
honey mixed with water. Decorations fashioned from those ingredients are not
considered "permanent(12)." The sugar-based frosting commonly found on cakes
today which hardens when it dries is not included in this leniency(13).
4. Although some poskim allow a right-handed person to cut the cake with his
left hand and vice versa(14). many others do not allow this leniency(15).
5. If the cake was cut before Shabbos, one is permitted to separate the
pieces on Shabbos(16).
6. A cake with lettering may be placed in front of a child even though the
child may erase the lettering on the cake(17). An adult may not, however,
specifically instruct the child to erase the lettering(18).
1 See Mishnah Berurah 340:41 and Sha'ar ha-Tziyon 76.
2 O.C. 340:3.
3 Mishnah Berurah 340:16. Rabbi P.E. Falk (Zachor v'Shamor, sec. 33, pg. 13)
maintains that pretty patterns such as a zig-zag design along the edges,
criss-cross lines running across the surface, etc., are not included and are
permitted to be cut.
4 Taz 340:2; Chazon Ish O.C. 61:1.
5 Dagul Mi-revavah O.C. 340.
6 Sha'arei Teshuvah 340:5 and Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 80:63. See also Aruch
ha-Shulchan 340:23, who maintains that the entire prohibition is limited to
letters that are formed from ink or paint. Nevertheless, he advises to let a
child cut the cake, as quoted later.
7 Shulchan Aruch Harav (343:10) and Chazon Ish O.C. 61:1 who prohibit
erasing letters even by biting and chewing.
8 Harav S.Z. Auerbach (Shemiras Shabbos K'hilchasah 9 note 48).
9 See The Shabbos Home, pg. 50.
10 Mishnah Berurah 340:15; Har Tzvi O.C. 214. In other places, however, the
Mishnah Berurah seems to contradict himself and prohibits this - see 475:47
and 500:17. Harav S.Z. Auerbach (Shemiras Shabbos K'hilchasah 11 note 31)
attempts to resolve this contradiction. See also Chazon Ish O.C. 61 who
questions this leniency.
11 See footnote 30. In this case, even Chazon Ish seems to be lenient.
12 Mishnah Berurah 340:15. Chazon Ish questions this leniency.
13 Tifferes Yisrael (Kalkeles Shabbos - erasing); Ketzos ha-Shulchan
(144:3); Be'er Moshe 6:94.
14 Eliyahu Rabbah 240:11.
15 Avnei Nezer 209. Mishnah Berurah, too, does not quote this option. See
also Mishnah Berurah 340:22 quoting the Chayei Adam who maintains that -
with the exception for the prohibition of writing - there is no difference
between using the right and left hand in regard to all of the Shabbos
16 Harav S.Z. Auerbach (Shemiras Shabbos K'hilchasah 11 note 30).
17 Mishnah Berurah 340:14. See explanation in Shulchan Aruch Harav 340:4 and
343:10. See also Chanoch l'Na'ar 17:4-5.
18 Shulchan Aruch Harav 343:10.
Weekly-Halacha, Copyright © 2002 by Rabbi Neustadt, Dr. Jeffrey Gross and
Project Genesis, Inc.
Rabbi Neustadt is the principal of Yavne
Teachers' College in Cleveland, Ohio. He is also the Magid Shiur of a daily
Mishna Berurah class at Congregation Shomre Shabbos.
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