QUESTION: Why do some people say morid ha-gashem with a kamatz
gimmel, while others pronounce it with a segol under the gimmel - ha-
DISCUSSION: The Hebrew word for for rain is "geshem," with a segol
the gimmel (and under the shin). Like many other words of comparable
structure - two syllables, both vocalized with a segol (e.g., eretz,
kesef, eved, etc.), the first segol is changed to a kamatz when the word
appears at the end of a Biblical phrase(1) or sentence.
The correct pronunciation of the word ha-geshem or ha-gashem,
therefore, depends on its location within the second blessing of Shemoneh
Esreh. If the sentence - which begins with the words atah gibor - ends
with the words mashiv ha-ruach u'morid ha-g_shem, then ha-gashem is
correct. If, however, the phrase is part of a longer sentence which ends
with the words be'rachamim rabim, then the correct pronunciation is ha-
In all of the old siddurim which were published hundreds of years
ago, the word is written as ha-geshem with a segol. While more recently
many publishers changed the vocalization and printed ha-gashem instead(2) -
and some poskim maintain that ha-gashem is the correct pronunciation(3) -
most poskim (4) hold that the correct way to pronounce the word is ha-
geshem, and this is how most contemporary siddurim print that word.
QUESTION: Is one required to separate challah only when baking
also when baking mezonos items?
DISCUSSION: Challah is separated not only when baking bread but
baking any dough from flour derived from the five species of grain: wheat,
barley, spelt, rye and oats. It makes no difference whether the mixture is
a thick dough or a loose batter or whether its blessing is ha-motzi or
mezonos; as long as the item was baked and at least ten cups of flour was
used to make the dough, challah must be taken.(5)
But not every time that one separates challah over a mezonos item is
one required to recite the blessing of lehafrish challah. The blessing is
recited only(6) if:
* at least sixteen cups of flour are used,(7) and
* the mezonos item is a type of food over which one would recite the ha-
motzi blessing if he were to make a meal (kevius seudah) consisting of
that food,(8) and
* the dough or batter is mixed with either water, wine, grape juice, olive
oil, milk or bee's honey.(9)
Contemporary poskim debate whether or not challah is taken from
noodle (lukshen) kugel (if challah was not previously taken from the
noodles at the factory(10)). Some poskim(11) consider noodle kugel a type
of food that would require ha-motzi when eaten as a kevius seudah; thus
they require hafrashas challah when a large noodle kugel is baked.(12)
Most poskim,(13) however, disagree; they hold that noodle kugel is too
dissimilar to bread and ha-motzi is never said over it. Challah,
therefore, need not be taken.
QUESTION: Some cookie recipes, such as those which are made with
shortening or eggs only, do not have any water, wine, grape juice, olive
oil, milk or bee's honey as an ingredient. What are the halachos of
hafrashas challah regarding such dough?
DISCUSSION: L'chatchilah, a dough of ten or more cups of flour that
contains none of these liquids should not be made at all.(14) A small
amount of water should be mixed in during the kneading process even if the
recipe does not call for it.(15)
B'diavad, if such a dough was prepared, challah is taken but no
blessing is recited. Unlike standard challah, however, this challah cannot
be disposed of by burning. Rather, it must be buried in the ground.(16)
QUESTION: Should one who drank a revi'is of wine or grape juice,
mistakenly said Al ha-michyah v'al ha-kalkalah instead of Al ha-gefen v'al
peri ha-gefen, repeat the blessing of Al ha-gefen?
DISCUSSION: No, he should not, since b'diavad Al ha-michyah covers
But the halachah is not as clear in a case when one not only drank
wine but also ate a k'zayis of cake and then said Al ha-michyah but forgot
to mention Al ha-gefen v'al peri ha-gefen. Some poskim hold that in this
case, too, Al ha-gefen need not be repeated, since b'diavad the blessing
of Al ha-michyah covers wine as well.(18) But other poskim maintain that
Al ha-michyah only covers wine when inadvertently one said Al ha-michyah
instead of Al ha-gefen. In this case, however, the person apparently
forgot about the wine altogether and intended to make a berachah acharonah
over the cake only. Thus, no berachah acharonah was said over the wine and
Al ha-gefen must be repeated.(19)
Since a dispute remains as to whether or not one is required to
repeat Al ha-gefen in the latter case, we must follow the principle of
safek berachos l'hakel; Al ha-gefen, therefore, is not repeated.(20)
QUESTION: How may a garbage bag be tied on Shabbos or Yom Tov?
DISCUSSION: One must be extremely careful about how garbage bags
on Shabbos and Yom Tov, since once a garbage bag is tied up, the knot is
generally left as is until the bag is picked up by the garbage collectors
days later. A knot left for that length of time may be considered a
permanent knot, and tying it on Shabbos may be strictly prohibited.(21)
Thus, the common practice of bunching and twisting the top of the garbage
bag, making a loop, pulling the ends of the bag through the loop and
tightening the loop to form a knot is forbidden. It is also forbidden to
extend the two top corners of the bag, tie them together and make a bow
(as if tying a shoelace), or to tuck in the corners of the bag under the
knot to strengthen the knot. The only permissible knots that could be made
on a garbage bag are a slip knot - a loop which is not completely pulled
through and does not form a knot at the top of the bag; or a single knot,
which is like the first stage of tying a shoelace. Such knots can be tied
with a bow or another knot on Motza'ei Shabbos.
An alternative solution for sealing garbage bags which totally
avoids any forbidden Shabbos Labors is to use a rubber band instead of
tying a knot. Rubber bands keep bags as tightly sealed as a knot or a
1 Most often the end of a phrase is indicated by an esnachta or a zakef
2 See Minhag Yisrael Torah 114:1, which explains that the original change
was implemented by the maskilim.
3 Igros Moshe, O.C. 4:40-15. See, however, Tefillah k'Hilchasah 12:27
which points out that Harav Feinstein subsequently revised his opinion on
4 Levushei Mordechai 4:213; Harav Y.Y. Kanievsky (Orchos Rabbeinu, vol. 1,
pg. 213); Harav Y. Kamenetsky (Emes l'Yaakov al ha-Torah, Bereishis 3:19);
Harav Y.Y. Weiss (quoted in Ishei Yisrael 23:25); Harav S.Z. Auerbach
(Halichos Shelomo 1:8-14); Az Nidberu 12:28; Teshuvos v'Hanhagos 1:81.
5 As explained clearly in Machazeh Eliyahu 110. But if the mixture is
going to be cooked or fried, then there is a distinction between a thick
dough and a thin, liquidy batter. A thick dough, such as pasta dough,
would require hafrashas challah without a blessing, whereas the liquidy,
thin batter, such as a pancake mix, would require no hafrashas challah at
6 See Y.D. 329:2, Shach 4 and Pischei Teshuvah 2; Shemiras Shabbos
k'Hilchasah 42, note 41, quoting Harav S.Z. Auerbach; Shevet ha-Levi
8:244; Derech Emunah, Bikurim 6:103; Leket ha-Omer 4, notes 1 and 23.
7 If ten to sixteen cups of flour are used, challah is separated without a
blessing. If fewer than ten cups are used, no challah is separated at all.
8 This includes most cakes, cookies, crackers and pretzels.
9 See follow-up Question and Discussion.
10 See Minchas Yitzchak 8:108.
11 Harav Y.S. Elyashiv, quoted in Derech Emunah, Bikurim 6:92 and Birkas
ha-Nehenin, pg. 134. See also Leket ha-Omer 4, note 5.
12 Practically speaking, this would apply only to caterers or to
institutional settings, such as camp or yeshiva kitchens.
13 Harav S.Z. Auerbach (Tikunim u'Milluim 54, note 65; Minchas Shelomo
3:158-16); Harav Y.Y. Fisher (Even Yisrael 7:42); Ohr l'Tziyon 2:12; Az
Nidberu 8:31. See also Me'or ha-Shabbos, vol. 2, pgs. 576-577.
14 Y.D. 329:10 and Shach 7.
15 See Mishnah Berurah 462:20 and Sha'ar ha-Tziyun 27.
16 Chazon Ish, Shevi'is 5:10, quoted in Derech Emunah, Bikurim 6:84.
Nowadays, there is some flour that is produced from grain that was soaked
in water. Challah separated from dough made from such flour may be
disposed of by burning; see Pischei Teshuvah, Y.D. 329:3.
17 Be'er Heitev, O.C. 208:23; Kaf ha-Chayim 108:89, quoting many poskim.
18 Peri Megadim (Pesichah to Hilchos Berachos 10, s.v. merish); Kaf ha-
19 Har Tzvi 1:105; Minchas Shelomo 1:91-6; Cheishev ha-Eifod 3:43.
20 Harav C. Kanievksy (She'elas Rav, pg. 289); Rivevos Efrayim 8:72.
21 See Tikunim u'Miluim 35, note 63 and Ayal Meshulash, Kosher u'Matir,
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