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Chapter 21: 1-3
Laws of Missed Prayers

1. As explained in Chapter 18, a person who purposely delayed his prayers until after the time for prayer has passed can never compensate for his deeds. However, if he forgot to pray or was prevented from doing so by forces beyond his control, he may compensate [by reciting the Shemoneh Esreh a second time,] after completing the Shemoneh Esreh of the following service. The same applies to a person who made an error in his prayers which requires him to repeat the Shemoneh Esreh [and which he did not realize until the time for that service has passed].

He should first recite the prayer appropriate for the time he is praying, and then the prayer for which he is compensating. For example, a person who did not recite the morning service when the time for the afternoon service arrives, and then recite Tachanun. Immediately, afterwards, he should recite Ashrei and then recite the Shemoneh Esreh again, to compensate for the morning service.

If a person did not recite the afternoon service, he should recite the evening service, wait only the amount of time it takes to walk four cubits, and then, without hesitation, recite Ashrei and recite another Shemoneh Esreh to compensate for the afternoon service.

If a person did not recite the evening service, then, directly after reciting the Shemoneh Esreh of the morning service, he should recite Tachanun, then Ashrei, and then recite the Shemoneh Esreh a second time, to compensate for the evening service. Afterwards, he should recite the Psalm Lam'natzeach and then, Uvo l'Tzion. [Just as it is forbidden to eat before the morning service,] if is forbidden to eat before reciting this Shemoneh Esreh, which compensates for the evening service.

2. A person did not recite the Shemoneh Esreh during the required time, even though he had the opportunity, because he though that he would still have time to do so after he completed the activity with which he was involved. In the meantime, the time for prayer passed...

Similarly, a person who was preoccupied with financial dealings so that he would not suffer a loss, and for this reason did not pray during proper time...

Even though it is forbidden to overlook the time for prayer because of financial loss or other mundane matters, such individuals are considered as having been prevented from praying by forces beyond their control, and may compensate for prayers they failed to recite.

Similarly, a person who was too intoxicated to be fit to pray is also considered as one prevented from praying by forces beyond his control. This applies even though he began to drink when it was forbidden to do so, after the time for prayer had already arrived.

3. One can compensate for a prayer [that was not recited in its proper time] only in the service that follows. However, if one delays any longer, it is impossible to compensate. For example, a person who failed to recite both the morning and afternoon services can compensate for the afternoon service in the evening service which follows. However, he can no longer compensate for the morning service, since two prayer times, the morning and the afternoon prayer times, passed without his reciting it.* * {The Shulchon Oruch HoRav 108:9 and the Mishnoh Beruroh 108,19 explain that except on Sabbath and festivals, it is proper to recite an additional Shemoneh Esreh as compensation. However, one should add a new request, in addition to the normal text of the Shemoneh Esreh in that prayer. One should make the following stipulation: If it is possible to compensate for a missed prayer after one service has passed, this Shemoneh Esreh should be considered as intended for that purpose. If that is not possible, this Shemoneh Esreh should be considered as a prayer offered as a gift.}


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