As Bilam makes his way to meet the Moabite king Balak, an angel
blocks Bilam's path and Bilam's donkey refuses to move on. Rashi
writes that the angel was an angel of mercy; he was not placed
there to harm Bilam but rather to save him from sinning and thus
to save his life. Bilam, however, did not realize this. As far
as he was concerned, the angel was simply interfering with his
well laid plans.
In an address to young men who were in the process of seeking
their spouses, R' Avraham Yaakov Pam shlita (rosh yeshiva of
Torah Vodaath) observed that it is common for people to be angry
when a seemingly perfect match does not work out. In reality,
however, Hashem knows what is for the best. Indeed, the gemara
states that it is blasphemous to pray that one be able to marry a
specific person. One should only pray that he be able to marry
the "right" person. (Atarah La'melech, p.32)
The same concept applies to other aspects of life as well. For
example, a person who is job hunting should not pray that he get
a specific job, only that he get the job which is best for him.
(Heard from R' Kalman Winter shlita)
"And Hashem came to Bilam that night and said to him, 'If
the men came to summon you, arise and go with them; but only
the thing that I shall speak to you - that shall you do'."
R' Moshe Feinstein z"l asks: If Hashem did not intend to let
Bilam curse Bnei Yisrael, why did He let Bilam go? He answers:
The story of Bilam demonstrates the power of the yetzer hara/evil
inclination. Although Bilam was a prophet and he knew that
Hashem did not want Bnei Yisrael to be cursed, he nevertheless
went to great lengths and made many preparations to try to
circumvent Hashem's will.
The lesson that we must derive from this, says R' Feinstein, is
that one should not rely on his intellect, piety, Torah study and
belief in Hashem to protect him from his evil inclination.
Unless a person is constantly vigilant, it is all too easy to
become ensnared and ultimately to sin.
(Darash Moshe II, p.203)
"You will see the edge of it, but you will not see all of
After Bilam failed in his attempt to curse Bnei Yisrael, Balak
suggested that Bilam might be more successful if he could see
only part of Bnei Yisrael, but not all of it. Why? Also, Bilam
is described (24:3) as being blind in one eye. Why is this
significant to the story?
R' Zev Leff shlita explains: Man was given two eyes to give him
perspective. Using one eye alone robs a person of the ability to
assess a situation properly and to see both the positive and
negative aspects of the situation. Thus, for example, Bilam was
ready to kill his donkey because of the one time that she refused
to serve him (at the beginning of this parashah). He forgot or
ignored the loyal service she had provided for many years.
In contrast, the Torah commands that our sheep that are killed
by wild animals should be fed to our dogs. One could argue that
the sheep's death was the dog's fault, for the dog was supposed
to be guarding the flock. Why then should the dog be rewarded?
The answer, says R' Leff, is that the Torah is teaching us to
look at the bigger picture and reward our dogs for their past
(Outlooks and Insights, p.193)
"How good are your tents, Yaakov, your
mishkenot/tabernacles, Yisrael." (24:5)
R' Hillel Lichtenstein z"l (1814-1891) writes: There were three
benefits that the Jewish people enjoyed when the
mishkan/tabernacle or bet hamikdash stood: (1) the nations of the
world recognized that Hashem was close to Bnei Yisrael; (2)
Hashem blessed each of the four different types of creations -
inanimate objects, plants, animals, and humans - because samples
of each were offered on the altar [for example: water; flour and
wine; goats, sheep and oxen; and the toil of the kohanim]; and
(3) through the service which was performed in the mishkan and
the bet hamikdash, the enemies of Bnei Yisrael were weakened.
How can we achieve these benefits now that the bet hamikdash is
not standing? Chazal say that Hashem's new home is within the
four cubits of Torah study. Indeed, several verses state that
Torah study brings rain and protects us from our enemies.
In this light, and after we know one additional fact, the above
verse can be understood in a new way. The name "Yisrael"
describes the Jewish people on an advanced spiritual level while
the name "Yaakov" describes them in their "lower" periods. Thus
the verse says, "How good are your tents of Torah study, when you
are 'Yaakov' - just like your mishkan when you were 'Yisrael'."
The mishkan (actually, the bet hamikdash) was destroyed because
the Jewish people have sinned and were no longer deserving of the
title Yisrael. However, the tents of Torah study bring the
Jewish people the same benefits as the mishkan had brought before
it was destroyed
In Devarim (23:6) we read: "And Hashem, your G-d, did not wish
to listen to Bilam and He turned the curse into a blessing."
This verse is internally contradictory; first it suggests that
Hashem did not listen to Bilam at all, then it implies that only
one of Bilam's curses was converted into a blessing! R'
Lichtenstein explains that as long as one of Bilam's curses is
overturned, i.e., as long as Hashem recognizes the beauty of the
tents of Torah study, all of Bilam's curses are effectively
(Maskil El Dal, Vol. I, Part III, No. 1)
"Reishit goyim Amalek/Amalek is foremost among the nations."
R' Aharon Roth ("Reb Ahrele") z"l writes: The initials of the
above phrase spell "rega"/"a moment," as in the verse (Tehilim
30:6), "Ki rega be'apo"/"His anger lasts but a moment." Thus,
this verse teaches that anger (alluded to by Amalek, foremost
among the nations) is foremost among bad character traits.
The verse continues, "And its end will be eternal destruction."
If one can delay his anger (i.e., push it off until the "end"),
he will succeed in destroying it entirely.
quoted in Imrei Aharon)
An Astonishing Midrash
Bilam said to Balak, "How can I curse them? After all, they
wear Shabbat clothes and they sit before the rabbi when he
delivers his lecture!"
This can be understood in light of another question, i.e., how
is it possible to hurt someone by cursing him? If he deserves to
be harmed, he should be harmed without being cursed. If he is
not deserving, the curse should have no effect.
The Ohr Hachaim Hakadosh explains that there are two ways that
a curse can have an effect. If a person is deserving of
punishment but Hashem has decided, for whatever reason, to delay
the punishment, another person's curse may hasten the arrival of
the punishment. Also, Hashem has ordered the world such that one
person can stop His blessings from descending from Heaven to the
In this light we can understand Bilam's words: Regarding the
first effect of a curse, Chazal say that all of a person's sins
are forgiven when he sits through the rabbi's lecture. Regarding
the second, man is elevated to a higher level when he observes
Shabbat, and Hashem's blessings do not need to descend to a low
level where a curse can "reach" themhim. Thus, Bilam's curses
were useless against Bnei Yisrael.
R' Chaim (Eliezer) Or Zarua z"l
R' Chaim Or Zarua - the name Eliezer was added during an
illness - was the son of R' Yitzchak of Vienna, author of the
important halachic work, Or Zarua. R' Chaim composed an abridged
version of his father's work, part of which is printed in the
standard Talmud edition after the tractate Yevamot.
R' Chaim also composed original works. His halachic work on
the holidays is entitled Derashot and is cited by the 15th
century sage Maharil. His responsa are cited extensively, in
particular by the Galician posek/halachic authority, Maharsham
(died 1910). Another work, sometimes called Derashot and
sometimes Piskei R' Chaim Or Zarua, consists of halachic rulings
related to each parashah.
R' Chaim was a student of R' Meir ("Maharam") of Rotheburg, and
served as rabbi of Wiener Neustadt, Vienna and Cologne.
(Sources: The Artscroll Rishonim p.145)
R' Chaim Or Zarua z"l writes: "I was wondering whether it would
be prohibited to place a drink within reach of a person who is
fasting just as one may not place wine in front of a nazir. (One
who does so violates the prohibition on placing a stumbling block
in front of a blind person.)
"My grandson answered that the two cases are not comparable
because a nazir is in the habit of eating and drinking and thus
might drink the wine, but a fasting person is not eating at all
and therefore is unlikely to drink from the cup that is placed
before him. Indeed, it was the custom of Maharam to recite
kiddush for his family on the second day of Rosh Hashanah even
though he himself was fasting."
(She'eilot Uteshuvot R' Chaim Or Zarua No. 49)