In this parashah, all but one of Yaakov's twelve sons are born.
The Torah's account of their birth begins (29:31), "Hashem saw
that Leah was unloved, so He opened her womb; but Rachel remained
barren." Why does the Torah mention that Rachel remained barren?
The main point of the verse, after all, is that Leah became
R' Nosson Wachtfogel z"l (Mashgiach of the Lakewood Yeshiva)
explains in the name of R' Simcha Zissel Ziv z"l (the Alter of
Kelm): Apparently the Torah is criticizing Rachel for not doing
more to make Leah feel comfortable in Yaakov's home. Therefore,
the Torah notes the contrast - Leah's womb was opened but
Rachel's was not.
The Gemara records that Yaakov had expected Lavan to try to
trick him out of Rachel's hand, and Yaakov therefore provided
Rachel with a secret password before their scheduled marriage.
However, Rachel, seeing that Leah would be shamed, had shared the
password with her sister. If so, asks R' Wachtfogel, what more
was expected of Rachel? How could she be punished for not making
Leah feel more at home?
The answer is that G-d puts man to many tests, and the fact
that man has passed the great test does not absolve him of his
duty to pass the lesser tests. Rachel passed her great test; she
gave her husband to her sister. Now she was expected to pass the
lesser test of making her sister feel at home.
R' Wachtfogel continues: In the 1920's and 30's, there were a
small number of dedicated young men who left the comfort of the
United States to study in the great yeshivot of Eastern Europe.
They passed their great test, one that required unusual devotion
to Torah study over all other ends. And yet, R' Wachtfogel
recalled, even these American students were not immune from
wasting time. Imagine that! After making the greatest
imaginable sacrifice, they failed the small test. We, too, must
fight to succeed in every challenge, large or small. (Noam
"Va'yifga / He encountered the place . . . because the sun
had set." (28:11)
Rashi writes: Our Sages interpreted "va'yifga" as a reference
to prayer, as in the verse (Yirmiyah 7:16): "Do not tifga /
entreat me." From here we learn that Yaakov established the
prayer of Ma'ariv.
R' Eliyahu Capsali z"l (Italy and Crete; 16th century) asks:
Our Sages teach that Avraham established Shacharit, Yitzchak -
Mincha, and Yaakov - Ma'ariv. However, since the day begins at
sunset, why did Avraham not establish Ma'ariv, the first prayer
of the day?
He answers: Ma'ariv has a lesser halachic status than the other
prayers, and thus has certain halachic leniencies. Therefore,
Avraham chose not to make that "his" prayer.
The above is a possible answer, but on a deeper level, R'
Capsali continues, the question of why Avraham did not introduce
the prayer of Ma'ariv is not a meaningful one. In truth, each of
the Patriarchs established the prayer that related to the unique
powers of his soul. Shacharit relates to chessed / kindness, for
the morning is the time when light spreads over the world, just
as chessed brings "light" to the world. Thus we read (Tehilim
42:9), "In the day, Hashem will command His lovingkindness."
Therefore, Avraham, the man of chessed introduced Shacharit.
Minchah alludes to din / justice, as the Zohar teaches, "At the
time of Minchah, justice prevails in the world." Thus we read
(Yirmiyah 6:4), "Woe to us, for the day draws to a close."
(This, writes R' Capsali, is one reason why the Sages warn a
person to take special care to recite Minchah.) Accordingly,
Yitzchak, the man of justice (see Bereishit 31:42), introduced
[R' Capsali concludes with a kabbalistic explanation for why
Yaakov established the prayer of Ma'ariv.]
(Me'ah Shearim, Ch. 90)
"Yaakov awoke from his sleep and said, `Surely Hashem is
present in this place and I did not know'." (28:16)
R' Reuven Halevi Horowitz z"l (early 19th century Polish rabbi)
comments: "Yaakov" refers to a Jew when he is at a lowly
spiritual state (in contrast to "Yisrael" which refers to a Jew
when his spiritual state is elevated.) A Yaakov should awake
from the stupor caused by excessive entrenchment in the
materialism of this world, and he should repent. What is the
most effective tool for accomplishing this? Recognizing that
Hashem is present everywhere - "The whole world is filled with
His glory" (Yishayah 6:3) - although we easily forget this fact.
One should say to G-d, "I'm sorry! I would never have sinned if
I had remembered that You were watching."
"Two angels accompany a person home from shul on Friday
night - one good and the other bad. When the person comes
home and finds the candles lit and the table set, the good
angel says, `May it be so next week as well,' and the bad
angel is forced to say, `Amen'."
R' Shalom Noach Brazovsky z"l (the Slonimer Rebbe; died 2000)
asks: How can a "bad angel" accompany a person out of shul? We
are taught that mitzvot create "good angels" and sins create "bad
He explains: Shabbat has two aspects - "Zachor / Remember"
(Shmot 20:8) and "Shamor / Observe" (Devarim 5:12). "Zachor" is
an affirmative commandment. Specifically, it refers to reciting
kiddush, but more generally, it includes all pleasurable aspects
of Shabbat. "Shamor" is a negative commandment that enjoins us
to not work on Shabbat. More generally, however, shamor demands
that we uproot any bad that is within us.
There is no question, writes R' Brazovsky, that both of these
approaches to Divine service have a place on Shabbat, but which
is primary? This is a subject of dispute between the so-called
good angel and the so-called bad angel. The former asserts that
the primary means of serving Hashem is to do good, while the
latter claims that the primary means of serving Hashem is to
uproot bad. [He is called the "bad" angel because he is concerned
with our bad deeds, not because he is bad.]
This is what the Gemara is teaching: When the two angels enter
the house and see the beauty of the Shabbat candles and of the
set table, the "good" angel says, "You see! What could be more
pleasing to Hashem than this? Let this person observe Shabbat in
this way next week as well." And, seeing the radiance of the
Shabbat table, even the "bad" angel is forced to admit that
Zachor is indeed the most beautiful way of observing Shabbat.
The Midrash states: "Lest you think that I (G-d) gave Shabbat
to you for your detriment [literally: `for your bad'], know that
this is not so. I gave it to you for your good!" Could anyone
think that Shabbat is bad for us? Rather, R' Brazovsky explains
in the name of R' Avraham Weinberg z"l (an earlier Slonimer
Rebbe), this Midrash is teaching the same lesson stated above:
The primary observance of Shabbat is to grow through doing good,
not to focus on eradicating sin.
The Gemara (Shabbat 118b) states: "If one observes Shabbat
properly, even if he committed idolatry, he will be forgiven."
How so? Once again, the idea is the same. We know that
repentance motivated by true love of Hashem can eradicate any
sin. Love is the feeling which leads one to do good, while fear
is the feeling that leads one away from bad. Thus, this gemara,
as well, is teaching us to focus on the "do good" aspect of
(Nesivos Shalom; Moadim p. 24)
R' Klonimus of Lucca z"l
R' Klonimus was a member of the famous Klonimus family that had
been influential in the development of scholarship in Italy and
France since the eighth century. Tradition records that a French
king - some say, Charlemagne - had brought an ancestor of this
family to Mainz (now in Germany) in order to bolster the Jewish
R' Klonimus himself lived in Lucca, Italy in the 10th century,
and was recognized by his contemporaries as a leading halachic
authority and paytan / author of liturgy. Some of R' Klonimus'
responsa have been preserved and published. Rabbeinu Gershom
Me'or Hagolah, today the best known Ashkenazic sage of that era,
praised R' Klonimus' liturgical works, among which is "Malchuto
be'kahal adato" which is recited by many congregations on Yom
Kippur morning. Tosfot to Menachot (109b) quotes three Talmudic
interpretations that R' Klonimus uttered on his deathbed,
literally moments before he died.
R' Klonimus' son, R' Meshulam, lived from approximately 950 to
1020. R' Meshulam also was a noted Talmudic scholar, posek, and
paytan. He corresponded extensively with the roshei yeshiva of
Babylon, R' Sherira Gaon and his son R' Hai Gaon, and he is cited
in Rashi's commentary to Zevachim (45b). Like his father, some
of his halachic responsa have been published, and several of his
poems are included in the Yom Kippur Machzor. R' Meshulam also
wrote a commentary to Pirkei Avot, which has been lost.
Late in his life, R' Meshulam settled in Mainz. Among his many
illustrious descendants were R' Yehuda Ha'chassid (died 1217),
author of Sefer Chassidim, and R' David ben Shmuel Halevi (1586-
1667), author of Turei Zahav.