It must have been chaos in the desert, a city planner's nightmare, before
the encampment of the Jewish people was reorganized in the second year after
the Exodus from Egypt. The new plans called for the encampment to follow a
rigidly defined grid. The people were to be divided into four groups of
three tribes and placed to the north, south, east and west of the central
hub in which the Mishkan stood. Each tribe was assigned its precise place in
the scheme of things, with its own flag and tribal emblem.
Why did God put off the organization of the encampment until the end of the
second year of the Jewish people's sojourn in the desert? Why did He allow
chaotic conditions to prevail for so long?
The commentators explain that it would not have been wise to create a formal
pattern of encampment during the first year. At that time, the Jewish people
were still in an early formative stage. Although they were all descended
from Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, although they had all shared the common woes
of bondage in Egypt, the idea of a Jewish nationhood based on the Torah and
the covenant with God was still very new.
Each tribe had its own outlook and personality, which gave it a singular
perspective on Torah and Jewish issues. Had the tribes been assigned to
different sections of the encampment, there would have been a high
likelihood that their ideological differences would lead to factionalism and
dissension. At the same time, ideological differences among the tribes could
also be a potential source of great national strength. The various
perspectives could engender lively exchanges and debates. So how could the
ideological differences be used to create a strong intellectual, emotional
and spiritual vitality without leading to factionalism?
God's solution was to allow the tribes to live together in one huge, chaotic
melting pot for a full year. During this time, they would merge together
into one nation indivisibly united around the core of the holy Torah. They
would bond not only as a large clan but also as partners in the divine covenant.
But this condition could only be allowed to continue for a limited time.
Otherwise, the tribes would truly melt together into some kind of a
composite that lacked the focused strengths and virtues of each individual
tribe. Therefore, God instructed the tribes to separate into a structured
encampment in the second year, after the Mishkan had been built. The tribes
would thus retain their individual character and still remain bonded to the
rest of the Jewish people by their common connection to the divine Abode in
A man enlisted in the army and was assigned to an army base, where he
made a number of new friends. After a few months of intense training, he was
transferred to another base where he was given artillery training. One of
his new friends was assigned to infantry training, while another was sent to
"What is going on here?" the young soldier complained to his sergeant. "If
we are to be separated, why were we thrown together in the first place? Why
didn't they send him straight to communications school and where we fit?
They knew his aptitude when he enlisted, didn't they?"
"They certainly did," said the sergeant. "Tell me, if you are called on to
support the infantry in battle with artillery fire, will you rush to do it?"
"Of course. That is my job."
"But will it help at all if you know that your friend is in the infantry?"
"I suppose it would."
"There you go," said the sergeant. "Starting with all the men together leads
to greater sense of commitment."
In our own lives, we also live in small separated units. We are divided from
each other by our interests, our professions, our family backgrounds, our
neighborhoods. But we must recognize that there is more that binds us than
divides us. We are brothers and sisters whose ancestors stood together at
Mount Sinai and heard the voice of God. We shared the memories, both
glorious and painful, of thousands of years of history. Regardless of our
differences, we are one people.