Torah.org Home Subscribe Services Support Us
  LifeLine
Print Version

Email this article to a friend

Vaera

by Rabbi Yaakov Menken

This week's LifeLine is dedicated in memory of Morty (Menashe) Cohen.

"G-d said to Moshe... I will harden Pharoah's heart, and I will increase my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt." [7:1, 3]

At first glance, it seems that Pharoah was denied free choice - and if so, many ask, how could Pharoah be held liable for his actions? What was his sin?

The Ramban (Nachmanides) and the Seforno both offer the following explanation (the Ramban actually provides two answers, saying that both are true). It is clear, they say, that Pharoah did not want to repent. When the Torah recounts the first five plagues, it does not say that G-d hardened Pharoah's heart - only that it was hardened, meaning that he did it himself. If at any time Pharoah had desired repentance, then he certainly would have been given the opportunity to do so.

Why, then, did G-d harden Pharoah's heart? Because after being struck with the first five plagues, Pharoah would have been forced to release the Israelites not because it was G-d's will, but because he was unable to withstand further punishment. He would have been unable to resist, as his servants said to him, "do you not yet realize that Egypt is lost?" [10:7] And this, concludes the Seforno, is not repentance at all.

If last week's Dvar Torah discussed free will as the distinction between human beings and other creatures, the Seforno this week helps to point out what - in Jewish philosophy - "free will" really entails. For as one subscriber quite correctly pointed out, animals do many things only "because they feel like it," such as playing games. "And there are indications that cats," continued the writer, "will hunt or not because they feel like it - as long as they have sufficient food." All of this is true.

The Jewish understanding of free will, on the other hand, is not our ability to choose between any two random actions. Rather it is the opportunity to decide for ourselves whether to do good, or bad. My family once owned a cat that preferred hunting over playing with yarn. I will save you the details; suffice it to say that it brought an unusual assortment of small trophies home through the cat door. Now did my father punish the cat? Of course not - it's "the predatory instinct" that "comes naturally" to all cats in some degree. But were we to see a child harming an animal, we would say that he is "being cruel", and must be taught to be kind.

"The heavens and the earth give testimony for Me upon you this day, that life and death I have placed before you, the blessing and the curse, and you will choose life..." [Dev. 30:19] Even if he had tried to do so, Dr. Dolittle could not have made this verse meaningful to the many animals he spoke with in the series of childrens' books. And the verse, according to Jewish sources, explains why it is that humans alone must have free choice: in order that G-d be able to reward us, for choosing life.


Text Copyright © 1996 Rabbi Yaakov Menken and Project Genesis, Inc.

The author is the Director of Project Genesis.


 






ARTICLES ON KI SEITZEI AND ELUL / ROSH HASHANAH:

View Complete List

Judge Me Tender, Judge Me Sweet
Rabbi Dovid Green - 5760

Building Fences
Rabbi Berel Wein - 5772

The Healer Is On-Call
Rabbi Yochanan Zweig - 5773

ArtScroll

Call of the Shofar
Rabbi Yaakov Menken - 5760

His Story
Rabbi Pinchas Winston - 5764

Circumstantial Repentance
Rabbi Yehudah Prero - 5763

Looking for a Chavrusah?

Father Knows Best
Rabbi Aron Tendler - 5760

"Easiest of the Easy" and "Hardest of the Hard"
Rabbi Yissocher Frand - 5757

Mankind's Song
Rabbi Berel Wein - 5764

> Encouraging News Before Rosh Hashana
Rabbi Yissocher Frand - 5757

Prayer is of the Essence
Rabbi Yehudah Prero - 5769

Benevolent Association
Rabbi Mordechai Kamenetzky - 5762

Frumster - Orthodox Jewish Dating

Teshuva—Fencing in the Enemy
Rabbi Eliyahu Hoffmann - 5765

Close Only Counts
Rabbi Yochanan Zweig - 5770

The Reward for Shiluach haKen Is the Inverse of the Reward For Kibud Av v'Em
Rabbi Yissocher Frand - 5771

Q & A Regarding Rosh HaShana
Rabbi Yehudah Prero - 5755



Project Genesis

Torah.org Home


Torah Portion

Jewish Law

Ethics

Texts

Learn the Basics

Seasons

Features

TORAHAUDIO

Ask The Rabbi

Knowledge Base




Help

About Us

Contact Us



Free Book on Geulah!




Torah.org Home
Torah.org HomeCapalon.com Copyright Information