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Rabbis-Notebook - Vayishlach - Torah.org
Vayishlach - The Purpose of Creation Part VIII
It Takes Two To Fight
By Rabbi Aron Tendler
Something must have gone wrong. Yakov had successfully fled from his
father's home after taking Eisav's blessing. He arrived in Charan, poorer,
but none the worse for wear. For the next twenty years Yakov and his
growing family survived Lavan and his henchmen's insidious conspiracies and
then managed to escape across the border relatively unscathed.
Supported by his four wives, eleven sons, and extensive household staff,
Yakov prepared for his confrontation with Eisav. He analyzed the situation
and applied a three-pronged defense strategy of prayer, diplomacy and
military preparedness. Yet, at the venerable age of 97, at the moment of
his greatest triumph over Eisav's Angel, Yakov suffered physical harm and
damage. Why? Why at that juncture in history, and why the damage to his
The story of Yakov and Eisav is the story of our world, as it might have
been, as it is, and how it might yet be. It should have been a partnership
between Yakov and Eisav. Instead, Yakov bought Eisav's birthright, took the
accompanying blessing, and the twin brothers went their separated ways.
Brotherly love, military alliances and national treaties should have
bridged the distance between Yakov and Eisav. Instead, the schism was
filled with Eisav's relentless hatred for the twin brother he once bested
while still within Rivkah's womb. In the end, the individual choices made
by Yakov and Eisav resulted in a divided world with seemingly divergent
In attempting to understand the reasons for the separation, we tend to
focus on Eisav's hatred and persecution of Yakov. Whether Eisav himself,
his son Alifaz, his grandson Amalek, or the ignoble gallery of evil
descendents from Haman to Hitler, Eisav became Yakov's historic arch-rival.
Eisav is jealous of Yakov for being G-d's chosen. Eisav wishes to eliminate
Yakov / Israel and do away with the contrasting scale of justice, morality,
and devotion that Yakov represents. But what about Yakov? What part did he
play, or not play, in the adversarial relationship? Was it all Eisav's
fault or was there fault in Yakov as well?
The premise upon which Avraham's descendents were chosen to receive the
Torah and become the guardians and teachers of G-d's law was Avraham's and
Sarah's monumental love and concern for all of humanity. They were not
content to live within the tent of their own righteousness. They understood
that to love G-d meant to emulate Him. To love G-d meant to share Him with
as many souls as possible. However, it was never intended that one or two
people shoulder the responsibility of becoming G-d's teachers. It was G-d's
intention that a nation be raised within the protective tents of Sarah,
Rivkah, Rachel and Leah who would develop into an indomitable force of
truth and goodness.
Had the rest of the nations embraced Avraham's message, the world would
have quickly attained universal redemption and the Messianic era. However,
for 500 years, from the birth o Avraham till the time of the exodus from
Egypt, Israel stood alone. They were not yet a nation to be reckoned with
and the rest of the world refused to embrace Avraham's legacy of human
nobility, hope, and glory. Only at the exodus from Egypt were the other
nations forced to take notice of their newfound nationhood. (This explains
why Amalek / Eisav attacked us at that moment.)
We explained in the Rabbi's Notebook on Toldos that Chesed (kindness)
starts at home. Avraham and Sarah certainly understood this and first
attempted to influence Avraham's brothers Haran and Nachor. When that
failed they turned their attention to Haran's son Lot and later to the
daughters of Nachor's family, Rivkah, Rachel, and Leah. Had they initially
been successful in "converting" Haran and Nachor, Avraham would have
started with a powerful alliance of supportive and capable partners in
accomplishing G-d's intentions. Because they failed in their attempt,
Avraham and Sarah's efforts were redirected inwardly. G-d sent them to
Canaan. They sent away Yishmael. They focused on raising Yitzchak. When it
came time for Yitzchak to marry, Eliezar was sent to Avraham's family of
origin to find the Rivkah component of the national equation.
With the birth of their twin sons it became apparent to Rivkah and Yitzchak
that there were two possibilities for the future of their children and the
future of the world. Yakov and Eisav would either join as one in the
forming the core of the Jewish nation; or, they would have to go their
separate ways - one to become Israel and the other to become Saeir. Had
they joined together, Yakov would have married Rachel and Eisav would have
married Leah. Because Eisav chose to go his own way and not join Yakov in
building the Jewish nation, Yakov purchased Eisav's birthright. Along with
the that purchase came the necessity for marrying both Rachel and Leah.
Did it have to be all or nothing in dealing with Eisav? Could there have
been another option?
I believe that there could have been another option for dealing with Eisav.
Why were Yakov and Eisav twins? We can assume that their twinship was
central to their unified destiny. Twins are often seen as "the same;"
however, in truth they are very individual. Yet, the twin relationship
suggests a greater sameness than might otherwise be assumed in non-twin
Yakov and Eisav were as dissimilar from each other as any two siblings
might be. The Torah describes Yakov as scholarly and spiritual, "a complete
person (without blemish) who dwelled within the tent (of study and
prayer)." Eisav is described as "a man knowledgeable in the ways of hunting
and trapping, a man of the field." Yet, they were twins. Each was intended
to bring his unique talents and strengths to the table of nationhood. It
was to be as Yitzchak finally declared, "the voice of Yakov and the hands
Given their differences and given their joined potential, we begin to
understand Rivkah's loving focus on Yakov and Yitzchak's loving focus on
Eisav. Each undertook to train the other child to recognize and appreciate
his twin sibling's uniqueness, both strengths and weaknesses. However,
regardless of their intent, they only succeeded in imbuing Yakov with
devotion to Avraham's legacy and the joy of being chosen as G-d's partner.
Eisav quickly moved away from the teachings of his parents to forge his own
Eisav's defection from the teachings of his parents was true in relation to
Yitzchak and Rivkah. It did not have to be true in relation to his brother
Yakov. Yakov, the spiritualist and perfectionist, the scholarly and the
truthful, was in the position to affect the greatest changes in his twin
brother. As the twin, he innately understood Eisav's challenges. As the
twin, he could have positioned himself as Eisav's best friend and
confidant. However, that was not the way Yakov was thinking. Yakov saw the
immediacy of his calling as the future father and leader of the Jewish
nation and focused all his time and energy on perfecting himself for that
In analyzing his potential partnership with Eisav as co-founders of the
Chosen People, Yakov saw only disaster. He saw the monumental strengths and
qualities of Eisav being perverted for evil and godlessness and knew that
it was up to him to save the future. He could not allow Eisav to be his
partner! He had to buy out his genetic options in the future corporation!
Granted the opportunity with the bowl of red lentils to buy out Eisav, he
grabbed the chance and ran with it. However, there could have been a
Given that Eisav was finally in a vulnerable position and asking for
Yakov's help, Yakov might have maximized the opportunity to establish a
friendship between them. Instead, Yakov (understandably and justifiably)
acted in response to his own developing sense of identity and
responsibility and moved to protect the future of "his people."
We see later that the sale of the birthright remained an issue for Eisav.
Upon realizing that Yakov had taken the blessing, Eisav proclaimed (48
years later), "He was named correctly! He duped me twice! First the
birthright and now the blessing!" Who knows how Eisav might have responded
if Yakov, his perfect twin brother, had (48 years earlier) extended his
hand in acceptance and friendship?
The truth is that if not for this week's Parsha, Yakov's battle with the
Angel of Eisav, and the physical hurt that Yakov suffered, we could not
begin to blame Yakov. In fact, the Torah never implies any direct criticism
of Yakov and his single-minded devotion to the protection and purity of his
future family and nation. However, he was wounded in the climactic
confrontation. Yakov did suffer pain and harm. Why?
I would like to suggest that Yakov suffered in the battle because he did
not attempt to change Eisav. He rightfully focused inwardly on his own
development and protection, as had been done by his parents and
grandparents before him. He did so with unswerving, constant, vigilance;
however, in so doing he lost the possibility of maybe influencing his twin
brother and keeping him as part of the nation's initial equation. In so
doing he lost the possibility of having Eisav as a partner rather than an
Why the Gid Hanashe? Why was Yakov harmed in the sciatic nerve?
When Moshe had his first encounter with G-d, he was instructed to remove
his shoes. G-d wanted Moshe to be in touch with the ground, not removed
from it. G-d's mandate to the creature that He had formed from the earth
was to use the divine qualities of his mind and heart to elevate the
materialistic, physical earth in service to G-d. (Note: Only the human
walks in an upright elevated stance.)
It is similar to the concept of the Mizbeach - Alter that must be formed
from a pile of stones or a pile of dirt. There too the idea is the
elevation of the earth through service to G-d. Therefore, we can suggest
that the legs that connect us in our upright stance to the ground are
symbolic of our mission in this world to sanctify the physical world in
service to the Divine.
The Medresh regarding Shimshon - Samson, further supports this. The Medresh
says that Shimshon, the great, mighty, invincible, long-haired warrior was
"lame in both his legs." Understandably, the Medresh cannot be explained
literally. My teacher, Rav Moshe Eiseman Shlita explained that the Medresh
is telling us that regardless of how the prophet describes Samson and his
actions we must start our study of Shimshon with the premise that Shimshon
was absolutely pure and spiritual, removed from the "legs" that bind us to
the materialism of this world.
Furthermore, the famous Talmudic story of Hillel and the Convert focuses on
the "teaching of Torah while standing on one leg." Hillel answers the
Convert, "That which is hateful to you do not do to your friend - that is
the whole Torah - the rest of the Torah is an extension of that principle."
Hillel understood the Convert's request, "Teach me the Torah while standing
on one leg" as referring to the two halves of the Torah: (1) the laws
governing social interaction, and (2) the laws governing our relationship
with G-d. The convert was referring to those two halves as the "two legs of
the Torah." The Convert was asking Hillel which leg of the Torah was most
important, the social or the devotional? Hillel answered that the essence
of the Torah was the laws governing social interaction, rather than the
laws governing our relationship with G-d. Both must be studied and both
must be performed; however, the social is the more immediate for
accomplishing our mission in this world.
Hillel's focus on the socially interactive Torah supports the mission and
legacy of Avraham. If we are to reflect G-d in this world it will be first
and foremost through the manner that we interact with our fellow human
beings. Therefore, the "legs" of the human symbolize the two halves of the
Torah, and the damage that Yakov suffered to one of his legs may reflect
critically on one of those halves.
Yakov's relationship with G-d was perfect. He was the "complete person
(without blemish) who dwelled within the tent (of study and
prayer)." Therefore, the area of concern could not have been between Yakov
and G-d. Therefore, it must have been the one leg symbolizing the laws
governing his social interaction. Therefore, Yakov was punished in his one
leg for not attempting to influence his twin brother and keep him within
Yakov's encounter with Eisav was the final stage of his transformation from
Yakov - the one half of the Jewish people, to Yisroel - the complete
progenitor of the Jewish nation. Fundamental to that transformation was
Yakov fully embracing G-d's mandate to represent the Divine in this world.
Yisroel must be able to do battle with all elements of this world, the
spiritual potential of the human creature as well as his physical
limitations. Yisroel must be able to love and therefore influence every
human being, Jew and non-Jew alike.
Commemorating the importance of the Jewish mission to teach both halves of
the Torah, especially the half of social responsibilities, G-d prohibited
the children of Yakov / Yisroel from eating the sciatic nerve that runs
through the hind legs of an animal and was damaged in Yakov's battle with
Eisav's angel. Had Yakov attempted to influence his twin brother, who
knows, there might never have been a need for the battle.