Question: What is the halachic definition of Tefillah b’tzibbur?
Discussion: Tefillah b’tzibbur means that ten adult men are davening
Shemoneh Esreh together. L’chatchilah, the ten men should begin reciting
Shemoneh Esreh at the exact same moment, but b’diavad, even if all ten
men did not begin the Shemoneh Esreh at the same time, it is still
considered tefillah b’tzibbur.
Some poskim hold that if ten men are present but only six of them are
davening Shemoneh Esreh, it is still considered tefillah b’tzibbur. Many
other poskim, however, disagree.
Some poskim hold that one who recites his own Shemoneh Esreh along with the
sheliach tzibbur’s chazaras ha-shatz also fulfills the obligation of
tefillah b’tzibbur. Most poskim, however, disagree.
Question: If one came late to shul for Shacharis, can he still manage to
daven tefillah b’tzibbur?
Discussion: It depends on how late he came. Shulchan Aruch rules that it is
more important to daven tefillah b’tzibbur than to recite the entire Pesukei
d’zimrah. Therefore, one who came late should skip as much of Pesukei
d’zimrah as necessary — except for Baruch she’amar, Ashrei (Nishmas on
Shabbos) and Yishtabach — in order to be able to begin davening the Shemoneh
Esreh with the rest of the congregation.
If one came so late that even if he would skip parts of Pesukei d’zimrah he
would still be unable to begin Shemoneh Esreh with the entire congregation,
he may still skip parts of Pesukei d’zimrah as long as he will be able to a)
begin Shemoneh Esreh while there are still (at least) ten people
davening; and b) complete his entire Shemoneh Esreh before the sheliach
tzibbur begins to recite Kedushah during chazaras ha-shatz. If,
however, he estimates that he does not have enough time to complete his
Shemoneh Esreh before Kedushah will be recited, he should not daven Shemoneh
Esreh with the tzibbur. Instead, he should wait and daven Shemoneh Esreh
along with sheliach tzibbur’s recitation of chazaras ha-shatz. [Whether
or not it is permitted to skip Pesukei d’zimrah in order to be able to
recite Shemoneh Esreh along with the chazaras ha-shatz will depend on the
dispute among the poskim mentioned earlier as to whether or not reciting
Shemoneh Esreh along with chazaras ha-shatz is considered tefillah b’tzibbur.]
Question: Should a woman who comes late to shul for Shacharis skip parts of
Pesukei d’zimrah in order to be able to recite Shemoneh Esreh with the
congregation of men?
Discussion: Contemporary poskim are divided on this point: Some hold that
since women are not considered as part of a tzibbur in any way, even if they
pray at the same time that the tzibbur does, their tefillah is not
considered tefillah b’tzibbur. They should not, therefore, skip any part of
Pesukei d’zimrah — which, according to many poskim, they are obligated to
recite — in order to daven with the tzibbur. Other poskim,
however, disagree. In their opinion, a woman who recites Shemoneh Esreh
while the tzibbur is reciting it is considered as if she davened tefillah
b’tzibbur, and she is permitted, therefore, to skip parts of Pesukei
d’zimrah in order to be part of the tefillah b’tzibbur.
Question: As mentioned, one should skip parts of Pesukei d'zimrah for the
sake of tefillah b’tzibbur. Is it also permitted to temporarily skip Birchos
ha-Shachar for the sake of tefillah b’tzibbur and recite them after
davening, or must they be recited before davening?
Discussion: The answer depends on which of the Birchos ha-Shachar are in
Al netilas yadayim—may not be skipped, since after davening one can no
longer recite Al netilas yadayim.
Asher yatzar—may not be skipped, since it must be recited immediately after
one has relieved himself.
Elokai neshamah—may not be skipped, since some poskim maintain that after
one has recited the blessing of Mechayeh ha-meisim in Shemoneh Esrei, he may
no longer recite Elokai neshamah (since their content is similar).
Birchos ha-Torah—may not be skipped, since many poskim maintain that Pesukei
d'zimrah (or any other pesukim) should not be said unless they are preceded
by Birchos ha-Torah.
Birchos ha-shachar—may be said after davening. Consequently, if saying them
first would cause one to miss tefillah b'tzibbur, he should wait till after
davening to recite them—provided that he is sure that he will not forget to
say them after davening.
Question: Which is the better choice for one who must skip some part of
davening to make tefillah b’tzibbur—to skip Birchos ha-shachar and recite
them after davening or to skip parts of Pesukei d'zimrah ?
Discussion: Chayei Adam implies that reciting Pesukei d'Zimrah takes
precedence over reciting Birchos ha-shachar before davening (except those
mentioned earlier that may not be skipped), and some contemporary poskim
rule in accordance with this view. But several other poskim disagree
and recommend not skipping any of the Birchos ha-shachar even at the expense
of omitting some parts of Pesukei d’zimrah. They argue that the obligation
to recite Birchos ha-shachar is mentioned in the Talmud, while the
obligation to recite the parts of Pesukei d'zimrah that one is allowed to
omit if necessary, is not. In addition, Birchos ha-shachar were
originally supposed to be said immediately upon arising and getting dressed;
nowadays, we say them in shul, but we should not further delay them.
The mekubalim, too, are strongly opposed to reciting Birchos ha-shachar
1. Mishnah Berurah 90:28, quoting Chayei Adam 19:1.
2. Mishnah Berurah 66:35.
3. See Igros Moshe, O.C. 3:4 and Halichos Shelomo 1:8-7.
4. See Eimek Berachah, Tefillah 6; Chelkas Yaakov 2:138 and Minchas
Yitzchak 3:10 and 9:6-7.
5. Harav Y.Z. Soloveitchik, quoted in Teshuvos v’Hanhagos 1:104; Orchos
Rabbeinu 1:160; Igros Moshe, O.C. 1:28-30; Halichos Shelomo 1:5-8. [All
poskim agree that it is permitted to recite Kaddish or chazaras ha-shatz for
only six mispallelim, as long as ten men are present; Mishnah Berurah 69:8.]
7. Peri Megadim (Eishel) 52:1 and 109:4; Salmas Chayim 91; Igros Moshe,
8. See Shulchan Aruch, O.C. 52:1, who lists the various parts of Pesukei
d’zimrah in order of “importance.” Certain parts of Pesukei d’zimrah take
priority over others when time constraints prevent one from reciting all of
9. Halichos Shelomo 1:8-7 and Devar Halachah 8.
10. See Mishnah Berurah 109:2 and Beiur Halachah, s.v. ha-nichnas.
12. See Mishnah Berurah 70:1 and Sha’ar ha-Tziyun 4. See also Aruch
13. Harav S.Z. Auerbach (Avnei Yashfei, Tefillah 16 note 13 and Halichos
Shelomo 1:5, Devar Halachah 4); Harav M. Shternbuch (Rigshei Lev, Hebrew
edition, pg. 116).
14. Harav Y.S. Elyashiv and Harav S. Wosner (Avnei Yashfei, Tefillah 16
note 12); Harav C.P. Scheinberg and Harav M. Halberstam (Rigshei Lev, Hebrew
edition, pgs. 115-116).
15. Mishnah Berurah 4:1.
16. Mishnah Berurah 7:5; 165:2.
17. Mishnah Berurah 52:9.
18. Rama, O.C. 46:9 and Mishnah Berurah 27-28.
19. Rama, O.C. 52:1. Although Aruch ha-Shulchan 52:8 rules that Lasechvi
binah and Matir asurim may also not be recited after davening, most poskim
disagree; see Igros Moshe, O.C. 5:20-12 and Yechaveh Da’as 4:5.
21. Rav C. P. Scheinberg (oral ruling, quoted in Tefillah K'hilchasah,
pg. 192); Rav C. Kanievsky (Ishei Yisrael, pg. 151). See also Avnei Yashfei,
Tefillah, pg. 121.