One of the serious flaws in our society today is the lack of proper
decorum in shul, especially on Shabbos and Yom Tov. While socializing in
shul is not a new problem(1)and certainly most, if not all people who go
to shul are aware of the prohibition against talking during davening,
still a great deal of talking goes on anyway, either from force of habit
or out of disregard for the Halachah. Today, when the power of prayer is
needed more than ever, we must find new ways to eradicate this scourge
from our midst.
Ideally, there should be no talking in shul from the beginning to the end
of davening. This should be the long term goal of every congregation.
There are a number of halachic reasons for this:
* Shulchan Aruch rules that idle talk is forbidden in shul even when
prayers are not being recited.(2)Idle talk includes conversation about
one's livelihood or other essential needs.(3)Nowadays there is some room
for leniency concerning such talk, since some Rishonim rule that shuls are
generally built with a "precondition" allowing them to be used for
essential matters other than davening.(4)
When one is wearing his Tefillin, he should refrain from idle talk.(7)
* During certain portions of davening, talking is prohibited for
additional reasons as well. Sometimes talking is considered a hefsek,
an "interruption" which may invalidate the portion which is being
interrupted, while at other times talking is prohibited because the
congregation must give its undivided attention to that portion of the
service. In the following paragraphs we will discuss the various sections
of davening, the degree of the prohibition against talking in each
section, and the reasons behind the prohibition. We will follow the order
of the davening:
Note: During certain sections of davening, as will be noted, there
is no specific prohibition against talking. However, the aforementioned
reasons for prohibiting talking in general apply to these sections as well.
Between Birchos ha-Shachar and Baruch Sheamar - There is no specific
halachah which prohibits talking.
During Kaddish - Talking is strictly forbidden, as one must pay full
attention so that he can answer amen, etc. properly.(8)
During Pesukei d'Zimrah - Unless there is an emergency, it is forbidden to
talk during this time as it would constitute an interruption between the
blessing of Baruch Sheamar and the blessing of Yishtabach(.9)
Between Yishtabach and Barchu - It is permitted to talk for a pressing
mitzvah need only.(10)
Between Barchu and Yotzer Ohr or ha-Ma'ariv Aravim - It is strictly
forbidden to talk.(11)
During Birchos Kerias Shema and Shema - It is strictly forbidden to talk,
as it would be considered an interruption in the middle of a blessing,
which may invalidate the blessing.(12)
Between Ga'al Yisrael and Shemoneh Esrei - It is strictly forbidden to
talk, since it would interrupt the all-important connection between Geulah
During Shemoneh Esrei - It is strictly forbidden to talk, as it
constitutes an interruption in davening(.14) If one spoke inadvertently
during one of the blessings of Shemoneh Esrei, he must repeat the blessing.
After Shemoneh Esrei - It is forbidden to talk if it will disturb the
concentration of others who are still davening.(16)
During Chazaras ha-Shatz - It is strictly forbidden to talk,(17) since one
must pay full attention so that he can answer amen properly. One who talks
during chazaras ha-shatz is called "a sinner whose sin is too great to be
forgiven.(18) The poskim report that several shuls were destroyed on
account of this sin.(19)
During Kedushah - It is strictly forbidden to talk. Total concentration is
During Nesias Kapayim - It is forbidden to talk, as complete attention
must be paid to the kohanim.(21)
Between Chazaras ha-Shatz and Tachanun - It is inappropriate to talk,
since l'chatchilah there should be no interruption between Shemoneh Esrei
Between Tachanun and Kerias ha-Torah - There is no specific prohibition
During Kerias ha-Torah - It is strictly forbidden to engage in either idle
talk or divrei Torah during Kerias ha-Torah.(23) One who speaks at that
time is called "a sinner whose sin is too great to be forgiven.(24) Some
poskim prohibit talking as soon as the Torah scroll is unrolled.(25)
Between Aliyos - There are several views: Some poskim prohibit talking
totally,(26) others permit discussing divrei Torah only,(27) while others
are even more lenient.(28)
During Haftarah and its Blessings - It is forbidden to talk, as one must
pay undivided attention.(29)
Between Kerias Hatorah and end of davening - There is no specific
prohibition against talking.
During Hallel - It is forbidden to talk. Doing so constitutes an
interruption of Hallel.(30)
Kabbolas Shabbos - There is no specific prohibition against talking.
During Vayechulu and Magen Avos - It is forbidden to talk.(31)
Note: From an halachic point of view, it is important to distinguish
between those portions of the davening where talking is prohibited because
of hefsek (e.g. Birchos Kerias Shema and Shema, Shemoneh Esrei, Kedushah,
Hallel), where not even a single word is permitted to be uttered
regardless of "need," and those portions where the prohibition against
talking is based on the requirement of paying attention to the davening or
because of shul decorum (e.g. Kaddish, chazaras ha-shatz), where an
exception can be made when a special need arises, allowing one to quietly
utter a few words.(32)
The following statement, authored by Harav Shimon Schwab,(33) sums
up the Torah viewpoint on this subject:
"For Hashem's sake - let us be quiet in the Beis Haknesses. Our
reverent silence during the Tefillah will speak very loudly to Him Who
holds our fate in His hands. Communicating with Hashem is our only
recourse in this era of trial and tribulations. There is too much ugly
noise in our world today. Let us find peace and tranquility while we stand
before Hashem in prayer!"
1 R' Avraham ben Rambam reports that this problem was so widespread in
Egypt during his father's time that he decided to eliminate chazaras ha-
shatz altogether; See Yechaveh Da'as 5:12.
2 O.C. 151:1.
3 Mishnah Berurah 151:2.
4 Aruch ha-Shulchan 151:5.
5 Rama O.C. 68:1; 90:18. See Shulchan Aruch Harav 124:10 who writes
that talking while the congregation is praising Hashem is a form of
6 Aruch ha-Shulchan 124:12.
7 Mishnah Berurah 44:3.
8 Mishnah Berurah 56:1.
9 O.C. 51:4 and Mishnah Berurah 6 and 7.
10 Mishnah Berurah 54:6.
11 O.C. 57:2; Mishnah Berurah 236:2.
12 O.C. 65:1 and 66:1 and Mishnah Berurah.
13 O.C. 66:7.
14 O.C. 104:1.
15 Mishnah Berurah 104:25.
16 O.C. 123:2.
17 It is permitted, however, for a rav to answer an halachic question
that is posed to him during chazaras ha-shatz; Aruch ha-Shulchan 124:12.
18 O.C. 124:7.
19 Mishnah Berurah 124:27.
20 Rama O.C. 123:2; Mishnah Berurah 56:1.
21 O.C. 128:26, Be'er Heitev 46 and Mishnah Berurah 102.
22 See Mishnah Berurah 51:9 and 131:1.
23 O.C. 146:2. and Mishnah Berurah 5.
24 Beiur Halachah 146:2 (s.v. v'hanachon), who roundly condemns such
25 Mishnah Berurah 146:4. See, however, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 23:8
and Aruch ha-Shulchan 146:3 who disagree.
26 O.C. 146:2; Mishnah Berurah 2 quoting Eliyahu Rabbah; Kitzur
Shulchan Aruch 23:8.
27 Bach, as understood by Mishnah Berurah 146:6 and many poskim.
28 Machatzis ha-Shekel, Aruch ha-Shulchan, and Shulchan ha-Tahor maintain
that the Bach permits even idle talk between aliyos. See also Pri Chadash
who permits conversing bein gavra l'gavra. Obviously, they refer to the
type of talk which is permitted in shul and on Shabbos.
29 O.C. 146:3; 284:3.
30 O.C. 422:4 and Beiur Halachah (s.v. aval).
31 O.C. 268:12; Mishnah Berurah 56:1.
32 See Salmas Chayim 38 and written responsum by Harav C. Kanievsky
(Ishei Yisrael #206), based on Mishnah Berurah 125:9.
33 Selected Writings, page 230.
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