Some things are forbidden because they are Avak Lashon Hara (traces of
Lashon Hara - it can incite speaking of Lashon Hara). For example,
someone might say, "Who would have expected So-and-So would be like
he is today?" or, "Stop talking about So-and-So, I don't want to tell
you what's going on with him," and other such statements.
Furthermore, praising someone in front of a rival is also Avak Lashon
Hara, because it will cause the listener to disparage the subject.
(Note: From this we learn that other conversations are forbidden,
such as simply mentioning the name of someone about whom the listener
is likely to gossip.) Excessive praise is forbidden even if the
listeners do not dislike the individual, because it is common to end
off such statements with criticism, such as "except for his negative
character trait of...." or that the listeners will respond, "Why do
you praise him so much when he has such a negative trait...."
The above [not giving excessive praise, since it could precipitate
Lashon Hara] applies when not speaking in public. In public, however,
it is forbidden to praise a person at all, because in a group of many
people it is common to find people who distort facts or act with envy,
so that by mentioning someone's good points it brings about
(Note: If however, one knows that the listeners
will not speak negatively about the subject, for example if they don't
know him, it is permissible to praise him, so long as it is not
If one wants to praise someone who is known by all to be a
good and righteous person in whom no evil or culpability is found, the
speaker may even praise him before his enemies, for they will be unable
to disparage him. Should they try to speak unjustly of the subject,
everyone will know that they are wrong.
An individual must also take care not to praise his fellow in a way that
will cause him harm. For example, if a guest were to go in the streets
and publicize the graciousness of his host--the food and drink, and the
efforts made on the guest's behalf--crooked individuals would take
advantage of the host and consume all of his money.
This is what is meant by Mishlei (Proverbs) 27:14, "He who loudly praises
his neighbor, while rising in the morning, it is viewed as a curse."
From this we also learn that when gets a loan from his friend, he should
not publicize the greatness of his friend's deed, because that will cause
unscrupulous people to try to take advantage of the friend, and he will
not be able to shake them.
One is obligated to watch his words so that others should not interpret
his statements as innapropriate; the listeners might consider him as a
speaker of Lashon Hara. If one causes himself to be suspected as such,
his behavior (words and actions) fall under the prohibition against Avak
It is forbidden to live in a neighborhood of "ba'alei lashon
hara" (habitual speakers of Lashon Hara), and all the more forbidden
to sit among them and hear their conversations. Even if he does
not intend to accept what they say, the very "bending his
listen" is forbidden, as discussed in 6:2.
If one knows one of his students to be a ba'al Lashon Hara, and he
that his attempts to rebuke the student will not be heeded, he
should distance himself from the student.
If one happens to find himself in a crowd of ba'alei Lashon Hara,
hears them speaking Lashon Hara, if he realizes it is possible that
rebuke will influence them to stop, he has a Torah obligation
contrast to a Rabbinic obligation) to rebuke them. Even if he
assesses that his rebuke will have no effect, he should not be
tainted by them, and he is therefore forbidden to keep quiet for
they might say that he was part of their group (i.e. listening
everyone else). He must respond by protesting in a manner by
he will be spoken of as respectable and upright. This is one
the reasons why one is obligated to leave a gathering of r'sha'im
(constant and willful sinners), for he is punished for hearing
their words and being unable to answer them.
Know further that even if one hears his young son and daughter speaking
Lashon Hara, one must protest against their doing so and remove them
from such activity, as it is written in Mishlei (Proverbs): "Teach the
child according to his ways," and is discussed in Orach Chaim (the
section in Shulchan Aruch that discusses laws of daily living) 343:1
with regard to teaching all the prohibitions in the Torah.
If one tells his friend something, [the listener] is forbidden to repeat
it to others without his friend's permission, especially if it is something
that contains Lashon Hara.
This is the end of the chapter on Avak Lashon Hara, laws of speech
associated with Lashon Hara. This is anything someone says that
technically Lashon Hara itself, but causes Lashon Hara to be spoken
(e.g. "I can't
tell you what he did at the conference.")
Although paragraphs 4 and 5 aren't actions (i.e. statements) of
individual, perhaps they are mentioned here because the
individual's presence in the situations associates him with the