Libraries of meaning sometimes attach to one word, powerful because it
both need not be explained, and at the same time defies explanation.
Devekus, clinging to Hashem, is one such word.
The staccato presentation of four commands in one verse trumpets an
announcement of signal importance. “Hashem your G-d you shall fear,
Him shall you serve, to Him you should cling, and in His Name you shall
swear.”.1 We can sense that the
brevity with which these items are mentioned belies the place they play in
Devekus is important enough that we will see it again in our
parshah. 2 It will make two more
appearances3 before our Chumash
presents its last verse. After emphasizing that no mortal can
literally “cling” to the overpowering presence of Hashem, Chazal.” 4 emphasize that the mitzvah of
devekus must offer some sort of functional clinging that is within
the realm of human possibility. Indeed, they find the perfect modus
vivendi for us. We can attach ourselves to those people who are so far
ahead of ourselves in their connection to Hashem, that they are human
refractions of His greatness. Clinging to talmidei chachamim, to
genuine Torah scholars, fulfills the obligation of devekus for us.
And yet it really doesn’t. Toldos Yaakov Yosef, accompanied by a
plurality of great commentators, tells us that in regard to this verse as
well, the simple pshat cannot be ignored. Devekus remains a
mitzvah in the plain, ordinary sense that it is usually understood. We
are to attach ourselves to Him. Talmidei chachamim offer us a
commonly available modality for finding Him and fastening ourselves to
Him. They have already achieved devekus; when we attach ourselves
to them, we connect with Hashem through them. The real goal, however,
remains devekus to Hashem Himself.
It is a mitzvah that is indeed important enough to be mentioned by the
Torah several times. (Devekus does not enjoy a monopoly on
repetition. The Torah calls us to kedushah – another one of those
compact but all-important words – a handful of times as well.)
How are we to understand the nature of this mitzvah? We can start by
recalling the would-be convert who asked to be taught the entire Torah
while standing on one leg.5 His
challenge was no match for Hillel, who responded, “what you find
distasteful, do not do to chaverchah, to your friend. The Avodas
Yisroel6 reports what he heard in
the name of his teacher. The word chaverchah should be understood
as chaverusecha, the relationship of closeness between you.
Hillel, then, telescoped the entirety of Jewish life into one all-
important preoccupation: devekus with Hashem. Do not do anything
that could disturb or impede your relationship with your Creator. All the
affirmative obligations bring us closer to that goal, while all the
prohibitions seek to distance us from what could drive a wedge between
Hashem and ourselves. The rest is all commentary – go forth, and study it.
His rebbi went on to find an allusion to this in the words “One thing G-d
spoke; these two I have heard.” Torah seems to vacillate between two
unrelated poles – telling us what to do, and what not to do. In truth,
these two are different facets of the “one thing” about which He spoke. He
asks of us that we forge a relationship that is close and intimate. To
accomplish this, He legislates for us activities that will bring us
closer, while proscribing those that will move us further away.
Once we grant the centrality of devekus in Torah life, we
understand as well why the Torah includes so many references to it. As a
central pillar of our conduct, devekus is no simple acquisition.
You cannot really answer the question of whether you have achieved
devekus with a simple “yes” or “no.” Devekus is complex and
nuanced. It includes many different levels. The sundry references to
devekus in the Torah are not repetitions for the sake of emphasis.
Rather, each one of them refers to a different gradation or level of
Looking more closely, you will see that devekus is sometimes paired
with yirah, fear of Hashem while other references link it to
ahavas Hashem, or love of Hashem. These differences do not simply
suggest that there are several access points to the universe of
devekus. Rather, they stem from devekus’ complexity.
Yirah and ahavah generate different forms of
devekus, which occupy different positions on the vertical scale
that links heaven and earth.
In much the same way, the Torah exhorts us to kedushah in several
places. Kedushah is the real linchpin of devekus.
To whatever extent a person lacks some subtlety of kedushah, to
that extent he misses out on devekus. This means that
kedushah as well is not a simple, uncomplicated quality, but a
constellation of values. The multiple references to it reflect many
points on a continuum, many forms of of kedushah.
Important as devekus is, we still have a difficult time
understanding the Torah’s prodding us about it, treating it as an
independent quality. We achieve devekus when we properly address
two related obligations: ahavas Hashem and yiras Hashem.
The Torah itself links them,7 implying
an organic relationship between them. Indeed, how else could it be? A
person contemplating the greatness of Hashem, standing in awe of His
exalted grandeur, has little choice but to be drawn close to Him and long
to become part of Him. Having instructed us independently in the
obligations of ahavah and yirah, why does the Torah make
separate mention of devekus elsewhere?
The Ramban8 provides an answer.
Devekus, he says, implies that we never avert our gaze from Him,
that we never lose our focus on our love for Him. Devekus is
constant and uninterrupted. Episodes of elevation and attachment to Him
are important, but they do not describe the madregah that Hashem asks us
to achieve. True devekus means a bond so strong, that it cannot be
severed, whether for long periods of time or short ones. The Maharal 9 puts it quite succinctly. “If
devekus is erratic, by chance alone, it is not devekus at
We seem to have set our sights at too elevated a position. Having
explored the implications and interconnectedness of ahavah, yirah,
and devekus, we cannot help but be impressed. We also cannot fail
to realize that none but a special, small group of individuals can hope to
achieve them as they have been defined. If devekus is the
touchstone of Torah living and its single most important goal, of what
value are our own lives? We can toil for decades, without coming close to
achieving what Torah is all about! How depressing!
This is a misunderstanding. In regard to all the mitzvos of the inner
person (even including the mitzvah of loving another as oneself), the
essential obligation is to strive. The fulfillment of the mitzvah is in
the concern, the concentration, the will to accomplish – not in the
We must see these lofty qualities as part of our personal universe, not
the domain of the special others. When we do, the effort we expend is
itself our success.
1Devarim 10:20 2Devarim 11:22 3Devarim 13:5; 30:20 4Kesubos 111B 5Shabbos 31A 6Avos 3:10 7As in Devarim 10:20, linking yirah with devekus 8Devarim 11:22 9 Nesiv HaAvodah chapter 4 10 R Aryeh Kaplan zt”l was greatly pained by the hundreds of
young Jews who sought spirituality in Eastern practices, convinced in
their ignorance that there was nothing spiritual in Judaism. He emphasized
that there was no spiritual experience or insight in those practices that
was not ready and available in our own seforim. The Rebbe’s treatment of
devekus in this paragraph is an ironic example of where the Torah sets the
bar higher than other disciplines, which often content themselves with
periodic episodes of elevation and clarity.