When Shabbos falls immediately after Yom Tov, or when the second day of Yom Tov falls on Shabbos, a Rabbinic ordinance prohibits cooking or baking on Yom Tov for Shabbos unless an eiruv tavshilin was prepared on erev Yom Tov.(1)The Talmud offers two explanations for this ordinance(2):
1. To guard the honor of Shabbos. The rabbis feared that when Yom Tov falls on Friday, one may become so preoccupied [on erev Yom Tov] with his Yom Tov needs that he will neglect his Shabbos preparations. Thus they required that a token Shabbos food be prepared before the onset of Yom Tov. (3)
2. To guard the sanctity of Yom Tov. The rabbis feared that were it permitted to cook on Yom Tov for Shabbos without making a manifest sign that the cooking is being done for Shabbos, some people might assume that it is permitted to cook on Yom Tov even for the weekday, which is strictly forbidden. The purpose of the eiruv, then, is to serve as a reminder that on Yom Tov it is permitted to cook only for Shabbos and not for weekday.
THE BASIC REQUIREMENT – L’CHATCHILAH
THE BASIC REQUIREMENT – B’DIAVAD
There are several ways one can perform the mitzvah of eiruv tavshilin in a more enhanced way. The following are considered hiddurim:
L’chatchilah, all the food that is prepared on Yom Tov for Shabbos should be edible on Yom Tov.23 This includes hot water which is boiled for Shabbos. B’diavad, or under extenuating circumstances, it is permitted to cook on Friday for Shabbos even if the food will not be edible by the time Shabbos arrives.24
When the first day of Yom Tov falls on Thursday, the cooking for Shabbos may not take place on Thursday.(25) It may, however, begin on Thursday night, which is already the second day of Yom Tov.(26)
Only one eiruv tavshilin per household is required. It includes all of the people who reside in the house, including married children and guests who are spending the Yom Tov as part of that household.(27)
Eiruv tavshilin is required not just for cooking and baking but also for any food-related activities that are needed for Shabbos, e.g., grinding, choosing, insulating, carrying, washing dishes and lighting candles. One who failed to make an eiruv tavshilin cannot do any of these activities on Yom Tov for Shabbos. A person [or a household] who is not planning to cook or prepare anything on Yom Tov for Shabbos is not required to make an eiruv tavshilin.(28)
IF NO EIRUV WAS MADE
One who forgot to prepare an eiruv tavshilin on erev Yom Tov before sunset may not cook on Friday for Shabbos. There are several strategies that can rectify this oversight, but they are too complex to fully describe here and should only be implemented with rabbinic guidance. Under certain circumstances one may(29):
1 Min ha-Torah there is no restriction on cooking on Yom Tov for Shabbos for either one of the following two reasons: 1) Shabbos and Yom Tov are considered as one day [as Yom Tov is also called Shabbos in the Torah]; just as it is permitted to cook for Yom Tov it is permitted to cook for Shabbos. 2) Even though one is really cooking for Shabbos, were unexpected company to show up, the food could be used for the guests. In essence, therefore, one is really cooking “for a Yom Tov need”; see Pesachim 46b for a thorough treatment of this complex issue.
2 Beitzah 16b. In practical halachah, however, the second reason is the dominant one; Sha’ar ha-Tziyun 527:67.
3 Our explanation follows the Meiri. See Rashi and Ran who give different explanations.
4 The cooked item is to permit cooking on Yom Tov and the baked item is to permit baking. One who is not planning to bake for Shabbos does not need to prepare a baked food for eiruv tavshilin (Mishnah Berurah 527:6). It is customary, however, to use a baked food for eiruv tavshilin regardless.
5 Mishnah Berurah 206:18.
6 Mishnah Berurah 8:2.
7 Sha’ar ha-Tziyun 527:55.
8 Based on Teshuvos Maharsham 2:36.
9 Based on Beiur Halachah 527:5.
10 Aruch ha-Shulchan 527:13. See note 110 for possible options.
11 Harav Y.S. Elyashiv (oral ruling, Koveitz Mevakshei Torah, Yom Tov, vol.1, pg. 216).
12 Harav S. Wosner (quoted in Eiruv Tavshilin ha-Aruch 2 16:3).
13 Mishnah Berurah 527:7.
14 Mishnah Berurah 527:64.
15 Ibid. 63.
16 Beiur Halachah 527:6 and 14 (s.v. l’chatchilah). The baked item, however, does not need to be especially baked for Shabbos.
17 Mishnah Berurah 527:8.
18 Eishel Avraham 527:7.
19 Harav S. Wosner (Koveitz mi-Beis Levi 1, pg. 52).
21 Mishnah Berurah 527:11;48.
22 Harav S.Z. Auerbach (Tikunim u’Miluim 2, note 35).
23 In order to satisfy the second reason quoted above in note 82.
24 Mishnah Berurah 527:3 and Beiur Halachah. Other poskim are more lenient and allow this even l’chatchilah; see Aruch ha-Shulchan 527:3.
25 O.C. 527:13.
26 Harav Y. Kamenetsky (oral ruling, quoted in Emes l’Ya’akov O.C. 527:13).
27 Eishel Avraham 527; Harav Y.S. Elyashiv (Koveitz Mevakshei Torah, Yom Tov, vol. 1, pg. 218). Two or more individual families who are sharing one house and one kitchen, should make only one eiruv tavshilin.
28 See Kaf ha-Chayim 527:113; Igros Moshe O.C. 5:20-26.
29 These options apply also to one who made an eiruv tavshilin, but it either got lost, was eaten, or got spoiled before one started cooking for Shabbos.
30 O.C. 527:1. The blessing is recited.
31 Minchas Yitzchak 7:36 based on Tiferes Yisrael, Beitzah 2:1; Harav S.Z. Auerbach (Meor ha-Shabbos, vol. 1, pg. 493 and vol. 2, pg. 633). No blessing is recited. Other poskim do not agree with this option.
32 O.C. 527:22. A special text is recited.
33 O.C. 527:7. Some poskim hold that one may rely on the rabbi’s eiruv only one time (Mishnah Berurah 527:22), while others hold that it can be relied upon even more than once (Aruch ha-Shulchan 527:18).
34 Sha’ar ha-Tziyun 527:32.
35O.C. 527:21. Thus it is permitted to cook many different foods, so long as one will partake of each of them on Yom Tov; Mishnah Berurah 71.
36 O.C. 527:20.
Rabbi Neustadt is Rav of Young Israel in Cleveland Heights. He may be reached at 216-321-4635 or at [email protected]