A person who is capable of teaching Torah to others should do so (145:3), but he should not teach an unrighteous student or study under an unrighteous teacher (246:7-8), and a bachelor or woman should not teach children (245:20-21). Teaching one’s own children and grandchildren has priority (245:1-3). A person who cannot teach his children personally is required to hire a teacher for them (245:4). A father should teach his son personally from the time he begins to speak until the age of 6 or 7 (245:5,8), after which he may turn him over to a teacher (245:5, and see 16) to teach him the written Torah and if possible also the oral Torah (245:6).
Every city is required to appoint teachers (245:7) who should be competent and diligent (245:17,19). A child should attend classes even if he does not (immediately) understand what is being taught (245:9). Classes should be held every day except Sabbaths and holidays and should extend into the evening except on Sabbath and holiday eves (245:11-13). On class size and discipline see 245:10,15; on classroom arrangements and manners see 246:9-17,22-26. On teachers’ salaries see 245:6, 246:5; on competing teachers or rabbis see 245:18,22.
Everyone is required to study Torah (245:1); a person who is not capable of doing so adequately should support others who do so (246:1). On the importance of Torah study see 246:18-21,26; on receiving compensation for Torah study see 246:21. A person should fix times for Torah study during the day and at night (246:1,23-24) and should continue his studies throughout his lifetime (246:3,25). On the division of the studies among subjects see 246:4. A woman is rewarded for studying Torah and must study the laws that are relevant to her, but a father should not teach his daughter Torah (particularly: oral Torah), and a woman is not required to teach her son Torah though she is rewarded for helping her husband or her son study (246:6). On Torah study by a married man see 246:2.
Shulchan Aruch, Copyright (c) 2000 ProjectGenesis, Inc.