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114:1. We begin to say “Mashiv Haruach Umorid Hageshem” [Who causes the wind to blow, and the rain to fall] (1) within the second blessing [of the Amidah] (2) in the Mussaf prayer of the last day of Yom Tov of Sukkot, and we continue (3) until the Mussaf prayer of the first day of Yom Tov of Pesach.

MB 1: Within the second blessing – Because this blessing includes reference to restoring life to the dead [Techiat Hameitim], and the rains are life to the world like restoring life to the dead.

MB 2: In the Mussaf prayer, etc. – And it would be proper to mention with favor before HaShem, Blessed be He, from the first day of Sukkot, during which we are judged on water, but since the rains are a sign of curse during Sukkot – because it is impossible to dwell in the Sukkah while it is raining – we do not mention the rain until the seven days of dwelling in the Sukkah have passed. And it would be legally most proper to begin to mention it immediately in the evening of the last day of Yom Tov, except that since not everyone is in shul for the evening prayer it would happen that some would mention it and some would not mention it, and we would be split into groups. And why do we not mention it in Shacharit [the morning prayer]? There are those who write that it is because it is prohibited to mention the rain until the Chazzan or the Shamash announces in a loud voice “Morid Hageshem” before the prayer, as explained later, and it is impossible to announce it in Shacharit because of the requirement to join Geula [redemption] to Tefilla [the Amidah – meaning that there can be no talking, even for an announcement such as this]. And for another explanation see the Turei Zahav. And if one makes a mistake and mentions “Mashiv Haruach Umorid Hageshem” during Maariv [the evening prayer] or at Shacharit of Shmini Atzeret he does not repeat [the Amidah].

MB 3: Until the Mussaf prayer – The reason that we do not stop in the evening is also as above, that there will not be confusion with one person still saying it, and this one not; rather, because we stop at Mussaf everyone knows from the announcement of the Chazzan or the Shamash “Morid Hatal” [Who causes dew to fall] before the Mussaf prayer, because the announcement to mention dew is a sign to them to stop mentioning rain. This is according to the Minhag of “Nusach Sephard”, where they have a custom to say “Morid Hatal” in place of “Morid Hageshem” during the summer. But in our country, where we do not have the custom to say “Morid Hatal” in the summer, such an announcement would be inappropriate, and to announce explicitly to stop saying “Morid Hageshem” is also incorrect because it would appear as if we were refusing [to pray] for rain, according to the statement that “they do not pray out of an abundance of good” [meaning because we are satisfied, we feel no need to pray]. Therefore, the Rama ruled in Seif 3 that we have the custom not to stop mentioning rain until the Mincha [afternoon] prayer, by which point everyone has already heard that the Chazzan stopped during the Mussaf prayer. But during Mussaf itself the entire congregation – including the Chazzan – mentions rain in their silent prayer, so that there will not be a confusion in the community. And if one makes a mistake in Maariv, Shachrit, or Mussaf of Pesach, and does not mention “Mashiv Haruach Umorid Hageshem,” then according to everyone he need not repeat [the Amidah]. [Today the normal custom even in synagogues using “Nusach Ashkenaz” is for the Chazzan to pray for dew at Mussaf on Pesach. — YM]

114:2. (4) It is forbidden to mention rain until the Chazzan announces it. (5) {Rama: And some say that before we pray Mussaf the Shamash announces (6) “Mashiv Haruach . . .” so that the community will say it in their [silent] prayers, and this is our custom.} Thus, (7) even if one is ill or forced, (8) he should pray earlier than community, because it is forbidden to mention [rain] until the Chazzan says. But if one knows that the Chazzan has announced it, even though he did not hear [the announcement], then he should mention [rain in his prayers]. For this reason if one comes to the shul and finds the congregation already praying, he should pray and mention rain (9) even though he did not hear it from the Chazzan.

MB 4: It is forbidden to mention, etc. – That is to say, even the congregation that is praying the Mussaf prayer is forbidden to mention rain if the Chazzan or the Shamash did not announce it before the prayer as the Rama explained above. Even the Chazzan should not mention it except when he repeats his prayers out loud, but not in his silent prayer since it was not announced beforehand. After the fact, if someone said “Morid Hageshem” in a loud voice during his prayer, even though it is forbidden to do so since he did not hear it from the Chazzan, in any case, it is permissible for those who hear him to mention it in their prayers, since this itself is an announcement – so writes the Chayei Adam. And it appears to me that if they did not mention rain in this prayer they do not need to repeat [the Amidah], because there are Poskim who explain that it is not called an announcement unless it is made before the prayer, or it is heard from the Chazzan during his repetition of the Amidah. And even the Chayei Adam only ruled [that for others to mention rain is] permissible, and not obligatory.

MB 5: And some say that before, etc. – This is a printer’s error. It should read “meaning [instead of ‘and some say’], before…” – there is no contrary opinion.

MB 6: “Mashiv Haruach . . .”, etc. – See in the Chayei Adam, who warns not to follow the custom of those who announce only “Mashiv Haruach” [without “Umorid HaGeshem” – and the rain to fall], because this is not a sufficient announcement, for in some places they also say “Mashiv Haruach” in the summer. Rather, one should finish “Umorid Hageshem”.

MB 7: Even if one is ill – Meaning, if one is not ill then he is forbidden to pray before the community during the entire year, as explained in Siman 90.

MB 8: He should not make [his prayer] earlier – Even if he is praying at home he is forbidden to mention it before the community prays. Therefore, those who live in the outer settlements and pray without a Minyan should delay praying the Mussaf prayer until close to noon on Shmini Atzeret, for certainly the community will not delay the Mussaf prayer beyond this time, and then they should pray Mussaf and include “Mashiv Haruach UMorid Hageshem”.

MB 9: Even though he – Since they probably already announced it.

114:3. If one said (10) “Mashiv Haruach” {in the summer} or did not say it in the rainy season, (11) we do not make (12) him repeat [the Amidah]. And also concerning dew, if one mentioned it during the rainy season or (13) did not mention it during the summer, we do not make him repeat. {Rama: But we, who follow the Nusach Ashkenaz, do not mention dew either in the summer (14) or in the rainy season. Rather, in the summer we only say “Rav Lehoshia, Mechalkel Chaim” etc. [In the second blessing, we proceed directly from “[Who is] Great to save” to “Who sustains the living”]. Some say that the Chazzan stops mentioning rain in the Mussaf prayer of the first day of Pesach, but the congregation mentions it and only stops (15) at Mincha, (16) since then they have already heard from the Chazzan that he stopped during the Mussaf prayer. And this is our custom.}

MB 10: “Mashiv Haruach” – That is to say, “Mashiv Haruach” only, and he did not mention rain.

MB 11: We do not make [him] repeat – Since the winds and dew do not stop all year long, and the saying of these words does not affect their occurance. Nonetheless, a priori it is the universal custom to say “Mashiv Haruach” [Who causes the winds to blow] during the rainy season, because the wind diminishes the great wetness of the land.

MB 12: Him – Even if he has not completed the blessing, because one is never required to mention wind and dew at all.

MB 13: Did not mention it – The author is explaining according to the Nusach Sephard, where they have the custom a priori to say “Morid Hatal” during the summer – even according to them we do not make him repeat afterwards since the Sages did not obligate him in this.

MB 14: Or in the rainy season – We only ask for dew as well [as rain] in a request [meaning we never praise G-d in the second blessing as He Who brings down dew — YM], because we are asking for it as a blessing, because there is dew that is not a blessing. During the summer we do not ask for dew even as a request, but after the fact if one mentioned dew during the summer, whether in the praise or in the request (meaning that he said “and give dew” but did not continue “and rain”), according to everyone he does not need to repeat his prayer.

MB 15: Until Mincha – Since at Mussaf it is still not known or recognized by the congregation [that one should stop mentioning rain]. And see above in MB 3.

MB 16: Since then they have already heard – If an individual delays his prayer until the Chazzan has begun to pray Mussaf and [the Chazzan] has stopped mentioning rain, [the individual] should no longer mention it as well. An individual who lives in the outer settlement should hurry on this day to pray Mussaf before the congregations [Pri Megadim]. And it appears to me that if he doubts whether they have already prayed, it is best for him not to say it since then at least after the fact he has fulfilled his obligation, as above at the end of MB 3.

Daniel Ashburn [email protected]

Siman 114. Mentioning Wind, Rain, and Dew

[The terms “sunny season” and “rainy season” refer to the times of year which are normally sunny or rainy in Israel. — SB]

114:4. If one said “Morid HaGeshem” [“Who makes the rain fall”] (17) during the sunny season [from the first day of Pesach to Shemini Atzeres], then (18) he must go back (19) to the beginning of the blessing. (20) If he already completed the blessing, (21) he must return to the beginning of the Shmoneh Esreh [Amidah]. Even (22) in a place where they need rain in the sunny season, if he mentioned rain (23) instead of dew, (24) he must go back. (And similarly, if he mentioned both rain and dew, he also must go back.) {Beis Yosef in the name of the Rambam, the Rosh, and the Tur} MB 17: In the sunny season – Even on the first day when one stops saying “Morid HaGeshem”, i.e., in Musaf of the first day of Pesah according to the Shulhan Aruch, and according to the Rama, in Mincha of that day, and concerning the Hazan, both agree even in Musaf when he repeats the prayer aloud.

MB 18: He must go back – As rain is bad for the world during the sunny season.

MB 19: To the beginning of the blessing – But if he did not return to the beginning of the blessing, but only to “Rav L’Hoshia” [“powerful to save”] and then completed the blessing from there, he need not go back again.

MB 20: If he already completed the blessing – See the Pri Mgadim, who wrote that the meaning is, after he said “Blessed Art Thou, L-rd”. But the Sha’arei Tshuva and the Hayye Adam wrote that this is only if he ended the blessing completely, but if he remembered after “L-rd”, he should finish with “Lamdeni Chukecha” [“Teach me your laws”] in order that his blessing not be in vain. [Rather, he will simply have recited a verse, Psalms 119:12.] And if he does so [says “Lamdeni Chukecha”], it is as if he is still in the middle of the blessing, and he returns only to “You are mighty” [beginning of the blessing].

MB 21: He returns to the beginning of the Shmoneh Esreh – The reason is that the first three blessings are considered as a single blessing. However, he does not need to repeat the verse “A-d-n-y Sefasai Tiftach” [“L-rd, Open my lips”, which preceeds the Shmoneh Esreh.]

MB 22: In a place – Even if that entire land was praying and fasting for rain. See the Beur Halacha.

MB 23: Instead of dew – This is according to the Sefardic custom, that one says “Morid HaTal” [“[You] bring down the dew”] in the sunny season, if one said “rain” instead of “dew”.

MB 24: He must go back – Even though with respect to asking for rain [in the ninth blessing of the Shmoneh Esreh], the Shulhan Aruch ruled below in 117:2 that if one asked for rain in such a case [that his entire land needs rain] in the ninth blessing in the sunny season, he does not go back, here it is different for it is said here as praise, and it is inappropriate to mention as praise something which is a curse in other places.

114:5. In the (25) rainy season [winter], if he did not say “Morid (26) HaGeshem”, he must go back. This is when he did not mention dew, but if (27) he mentioned dew, he does not go back.

MB 25: Rainy season – Even in the first prayer of the season, which is Musaf of Shemini Atzeres for us, because our custom is to announce to the congregation [to begin saying] “Mashiv HaRuach u’Morid HaGeshem!” [Who causes the wind to blow and rain to fall] before Musaf.

MB 26: HaGeshem – Even if he said “Mashiv HaRuach” [Who causes the wind to blow, but he omitted rain].

MB 27: He mentioned dew – Even if he said only “Morid HaTal” [“[You] bring down the dew”, without rain or wind]. And the reason is that although dew is never withheld [like rain], nevertheless its mention is praise to the Holy One, Blessed be He. This is not the case with respect to asking for rain in the ninth blessing, in which one needs to ask for the thing which is withheld – and therefore if did not ask for rain, even if he did ask for dew it is of no benefit, as in 117:4 below.

114:6. When do we rule that one who did not say “Morid HaGeshem” [Who causes rain to fall] during the rainy season must go back? This is when he completed the entire blessing (28) and began the next – then he must return to the beginning of the Shmoneh Esreh. But if he remembers before completing the blessing, then he should say “Morid HaGeshem” (29) wherever he remembers [and then continue without going back]. (30) Even if he completed the blessing but remembered before he began the next, he need not go back, but (31) rather should say “Mashiv HaRuach uMorid HaGeshem” (32) without a closing [meaning, without the rest of a blessing concluding “Boruch Atah…”]. {Rama: The (33) first three blessings of the Shmoneh Esreh are considered as a single blessing, and [therefore] whenever one makes a mistake in one of them, (34)he must return to the beginning of the Shemoneh Esreh, whether he is a single person or [the Chazzan for] an entire congregation.}

MB 28: And began – Even if said only the first word “Ata” [“You”]. The same applies if [as Chazzan,] he began to say “Nekadesh” [“Let us sanctify”, the first word of the Kedusha].

MB 29: Wherever he remembers – Because the sages did not fix a specific place in the blessing [for mentioning rain], but rather they simply said that we must mention G-d’s rain-giving power in the blessing of the revival of the dead [the second blessing in the Shmoneh Esreh]. It is just our custom to mention rain before the word “Mechalkel” [“You sustain the living”], which refers to livelihood, for rains are also connected to livelihood. Therefore, it is sufficient that one mention rain wherever he remembers it. And it is clear that if he remembered after saying “V’Ne’man Ata L’Hachayos Mesim” [“And You are faithful to revive the dead”] that he must go back and repeat “V’Ne’man Ata L’Hachayos Mesim” [after mentioning rain] because the last words before the ending of a blessing must speak of the same matter as the ending itself [“Blessed Art Thou … Who Revives the Dead”].

MB 30: Even if he completed – And similarly, if he remembers after he says “L-rd”, he should end with “Who revives the dead” and immediately say “Mashiv HaRuach uMorid HaGeshem”.

MB 31: Rather should say – And it is proper ideally to say it immediately, in order not to make a significant pause after the blessing.

MB 32: Without a closing – And then he continues “Ata Kadosh” [“You are holy”, the beginning of the next blessing]. The same law applies if one forgot to say “Ya’aleh Veyavo” on Rosh Chodesh in Shacharis or Mincha, and remembered after he finished the blessing: he should say it there and then begin the next blessing, “Modim”, as set forth below in 422:1. As long as one did not yet begin the next blessing, it is not considered as if he has completely finished the current one, with respect to all things for which he must go back if he omitted them. This is true even though he is indeed considered to have completed the current blessing with respect to those things for which he need not go back if he omitted them, such as the mention of “Havdalah” [said after Shabbos concerning the distinction between Shabbos and the six days of the week] in “Chonen HaDaas” [the fourth blessing], and “Ya’aleh Veyavo” in the evening service on Rosh Hodesh, and “Al HaNisim” on Hanukah and Purim, etc., meaning that one does not say any of these if he already completed the blessing, even though he did not yet begin the next one – for all of these, the blessing is considered to have ended immediately when he has said “L-rd” at the end of the blessing. There are authorities who disagree, and say that even for things for which one must go back, it is as though one has begun the next blessing immediately upon concluding the current one. It seems to me that practically, if one remembers [omitting rain] after he said “L-rd”, then he should not end “Who revives the dead”, but rather he should end “Lamdeni Chukecha” [“Teach me Your Laws”, the verse from Psalms mentioned above], and it will be as though he merely recited a verse and is still in the middle of the blessing, and then he should return to “Mashiv Haruach”. One should do similarly in all cases for which one must go back if he omitted them, as I have shown in the Beur Halacha, see there.

MB 33: First – He mentioned the “first” blessings because that is the subject of discussion here, but the same applies to the last three. The reason is that the first three blessings have the same subject: setting forth the praise of the Holy One, Blessed be He, before asking for one’s needs, like a servant who sets forth praise before his master before he requests something from him. The last three blessings are like a servant who received his request from his master, who praises him as he departs.

MB 34: He must return to the very beginning – Only if he erred in the closing of the blessing, e.g., he ended this blessing with the subject of another blessing, or he ended [the third blessing] during the Ten Days of Repentance with “Ha-Kel HaKadosh” [“The Holy G-d”, instead of “HaMelech HaKadosh”, “The Holy King”] and did not remember until after a significant pause, as then it is impossible for him to correct his mistake – because going back only helps immediately after the end of the blessing. So too in any case where if it would happen in another blessing, he would need to return to the beginning of the blessing, then in the first or last three blessings he must return to the first of the three, as they are all considered as one. But if one erred in the middle of a blessing, it does not invalidate the blessing. See above in Siman 68 in MB 1, where we explained this at length.