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Job is a book that ranks as one of the most difficult books in theTanach (Bible), for two reasons:

  1. Its incredibly complex and obscure Hebrew – allowing for multiple translations and meanings.
  2. The complex and delicate nature of the subject matter.

Like anything in life, the reward for success reflects the amount of effort put in. Therefore, there must be a lot to gain from the deep study of the book of Job.

The story of Job is very simple: it is a conversation between G-d and one of His loyal angels (called: Satan). Satan claims that Job isn’t such a great servant, and that he only serves G-d because he is wealthy and things are always going his way. G-d gives Satan the right to test Job, saying “do anything to him, but don’t take his life.” And so in a very short time, Job’s immense wealth disappears, his seven sons die and Job himself is afflicted with a painful disease.

That is the basic story. The final 38 (out of 40) chapters of the book detail Job’s response to what has happened, his conversations with his friends. Finally, G-d’s answers the main question of the book: how could such a thing have befallen a righteous person? In other words: why do bad things happen to good people? Is G-d really in control of this world? Is He just?

So what’s the Jewish answer to those famous questions? Job’s friends suggest that perhaps Job isn’t as clean as he thinks he is, maybe there’s some sin for which G-d is now punishing him.

According to Rabbi Moshe ben Nachman (the 12th Century commentator known as the Ramban), that answer would have been a good enough for most of the world. There are very few people who go through life with absolutely no sin, and G-d, who is in charge of this world, and is a just judge, most definitely punishes.

But according to the Ramban, this answer won’t answer Job’s question, because he really was clean. When G-d finally spoke to Job at the end of the book He answered differently: In essence, He told Job that “I am G-d, and you are only a tiny, finite human being – you can’t possibly hope to understand the way I run My world. Everything I do is just, even if you can’t see the justice.”

Read the Ramban’s introduction to his commentary on the book of Job for a deeper understanding of how Job’s lot was truely just. The bottom line in Jewish thought is: G-d runs the world, He is just and everything that happens is just… even though we can’t always see how that is so.